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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 4 major sutures in the skull?
1. Coronal
2. Sagittal
3. Lamboid
4. Squamous
What bones are fused by the coronal suture?
Frontal bone with the paired parietal bones
What bones are fused by the sagittal suture?
The two parietal bones meet midline at the sagittal suture
What bones are fused by the lamboid suture?
Occipital bone is fused with both parietal bones at the lamboid suture
What bones are fused by the squamous suture?
Parietal and temporal bones are fused by the squamous suture on each lateral side of the skull
What is the name of the large hole in the occiptal bone through which the inferior part of the brain connects with the spinal cord?
Foramen Magnum
What bone is considerd the keystone of the cranium?
Sphenoid Bone
What is the saddle shaped prominence on the superior surface of the sphenoid bone?
Sella Turcica
What are the layers of the scalp from superficial to deep?
(SCALP) skin > connective tissue > aponeurosis (galea) > loose connective tissue > pericranium
What is the pterion and what vessel is deep to it?
The pterion is a portion on the lateral side of the skull where the front, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal bone meet. Deep to the pterion is the middle menigeal artery
Swelling to the pituitary gland can cause pressure to what nerve?
Swelling to the pituitary gland can cause blindness by increasing pressure to the optic tract
What is coup-contrecoup?
- Injury to the back of the brain from a trauma to the frontal part of the brain

- can cause intercranial hemorrhage
What are some complications from a fracture to the superior orbit? inferior orbit?
- superior orbital fracture can affect supraorbital nerve

- inferior orbital fracture can cause entrapment of the inferior muscle (muscle gets caught on fractured bone)
What forms the borders of the anterior triangle in the neck?
- sternocleidomastoid muscle
- lower body of the mandible
- anterior midline of the trachea
What forms the borders of the posterior triangle of the neck?
- sternocleidomastoid muscle
- clavicle
- trapezius muscle
What is torticollis?
spasm in a muscle in the neck
Name the different areas in the head and neck where lymph nodes are found
1. Preauricular
2. Post-auricular
3. Occipital
4. Tonsilar
5. Sub-mandibular
6. Sub-mental
7. Superfical Cervical
8. Deep Cervical
9. Posterior Cervical
10. Supraclavicular
What are the borders of zone 1?
Clavicle to the cricoid cartilage
What are the borders of zone 2 in the neck?
Cricoid cartilage to the base of the mandible
What are the borders of zone 3 in the neck?
Mandible to the base of the cranium
What is the most common site of epitaxis (nosebleed)?
Bleeding from Kisselbach's plexus
What bones form the hard palate?
- the palatine processes of the maxillae anteriorly
- horizontal plates of the palatine bones posteriorly
What is primary craniosynostosis?
premature closure of the cranial sutures
What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?
- helps maintain the balance of extracellular fluid

- cushions and nourishes the brain
What are the 3 parts of the brainstem?
1. Midbrain
2. Pons
3. Medulla Oblongata
What cells produce CSF?
Choroidal epithelial cells of the choroid plexus
What is the limbus?
The limbus is the corneal-sclera junction
Inflammation of which glands can cause a sty (chalazion/hordeolum)?
the tarsal (meiobmian) glands
The cornea and sclera are regions of which layer in the eye?
The Fibrous tunic (the outermost layer)
What is the name of the middle layer in the eye?
The vascular tunic or uvea
What are the portions of the uvea from anterior to posterior?
Iris, ciliary body, choroid
What is blepharitis?
inflammation of the eyelid
What is aniscoria?
unequal pupil size
What is hyperopia?
Far-sightedness (can't see near)
What is myopia?
Near-sightedness (can't see far)
What is dacrocystitis?
Inflammation of the lacrimal gland
What is hemianopsia?
without half of the field of vision
What space constitutes the anterior chamber of the eye?
The space between the cornea anteriorly and the iris/pupil posteriorly
What space constitutes the posterior chamber of the eye?
The space between the iris/pupil anteriorly and the lens/ciliary body posteriorly
What is the macula lutea?
- A small, oval, yellow spot lateral to the optic disc

- it is the area of the retina with special photoreceptor cones, specialized for acuity of vision
What is the fovea centralis?
It is at the center of the macula lutea and is the area of most acute vision
Describe the movement of the aqueous humor
• The aqueous humor is produced in the posterior chamber by the ciliary processes of the ciliary body
• After passing through the pupil into the anterior chamber, the aqueous humor drains into the scleral venous sinus (or canal of Schlemm)
Describe the shape of the lens for near vision? and far vision?
- The lens is relatively flat so that its refraction enables far vision

- parasympathetic stimulation causes the lens to increase its convexity for near vision
What is hyphema?
A hemorrahge within the anterior chamber of the eyeball
What is bullous myringitis?
Otitis media with a vesicular bulla on the tympanic membrane
What are two things that can cause unequal rise of the uvula?
1. peri-tonsillar abscess (PTA)
2. problem with cranial nerve IX or X
Which duct lies at the base of the tongue?
Wharton's duct (duct of the submandibular gland)
Which duct lies in the buccal mucosa of the cheek?
Stenson's duct (duct of the parotid gland)