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96 Cards in this Set

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The superior sagittal sinus which contains venous blood lies between these two structures
Between the meningeal layer and the periosteal layer of the dura mater
Where is CSF formed and where is it found?
By the choroid plexuses of the 4 ventricles
Its found in the subarachnoid (leptomeningeal)space between the pia and arachnoid layers
Where is the 4th ventricle located
immediately anterior to the cerebellum
What effects could a pituitary tumor have
visual symptoms due to pressure on the optic chiasm
It branches off the maxillary artery, it runs through the foramen spinosum to supply the dura mater (one of the meninges) and the calvaria
the middle meningeal artery, it runs beneath the pterion. Rupture of the artery may give rise to an epidural hematoma
explain an epidural (extradural)hemorrhage
a buildup of blood occurring between the dura mater (the brain's tough outer membrane) and the skull, causing midline shift and compression of the ventricle
a branch of the external carotid
middle meningeal artery
explain subarachnoid bleed
bleeding into the area between the arachnoid and the pia mater, most commonly follows the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm
What is craniosynostosis
premature closure of cranial sutures
If you are hit on the left side of your head with a bat and suffer an intercranial hemorrhage and fracture on the right side of your head. What is this called?
Coup-Contrecoup
Which arteries form the basilar artery
At the lower border of the pons the two vertebral arteries join together to form the basilar artery
What is hyphema
hemorrhage within the anterior chamber of the eyeball, usually pools at the bottom of the chamber
Differentiate a stroke from Bell's palsy
you can raise your eyebrow with a stroke
Le Forte fractures are assoc with this bone
maxillary bone
Le Fort I- around the gumline
Le Fort II-central part of face is separated from rest of cranium
Type III- Horizontal, passes through superior-orbital fissure
The anterior cerebral arteries are linked to the posterior cerebral arteries by
the posterior communicating arteries
This bone separates the nasal cavity from the brain
Cribriform plate
Arteries that make up the Circle of Willis
Anterior cerebral
Anterior communicating
Internal carotid
Posterior cerebral
Posterior communicating
What is Tic Douloureux
trigeminal neuralgia-sensory disorder causing jabbing facial pain
symptoms of Horner's syndrome
ptosis
miosis
enophthalmos
anhidrosis
Where do most nosebleeds originate
Kiesselbach's plexus
what is torticollis
a condition in which the head is tilted toward one side, and the chin is elevated and turned toward the opposite side
What kind of ear infection suggest tenderness when the tragus and helix are moved and commonly assoc with swimmers
otitis externa
where do the common carotid arteries bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries
At approximately the level of the third cervical vertebra
In which zone of the neck is the cricoid cartilage located
Zone 2
In which zone of the neck is the mouth located
zone 3
your clavicles are located in the neck zone
zone 1
Where is Stensen's duct located and what does it do?
allows saliva to drain from the parotid gland to the oral cavity around th2 2nd molar
What is a Cricothyrotomy?
A cricothyrotomy is usually a last resort surgical procedure in cases of severe choking due to upper airway obstruction when attempts at orotracheal and nasotracheal intubation have failed.
what could cause a TIA?
Partial occlusion of he internal carotid
the external carotid gives rise to which vessels?
The maxillary and the superficial temporal artery
Ludwig's angina
most often streptococci or staphylococci, is a serious, potentially life-threatening infection of the tissues of the floor of the mouth,
a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the human skull.
Sella turcica, known as the hypophyseal fossa which holds the pituitary gland.
The distal part of the malleus is called
Umbo
What is Bullous Myringitis
Middle Ear, Tympanic Membrane, Infections
what leads to a dilated ipsilateral pupil and contra-lateral hemiparesis
Transtentorial (uncal) herniation
Which division consists of the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, corpus striatum and olfactory bulb.
The telencephalon
location of the telencephalon
anterior portion of the brain, rostral to the midbrain
functions of the telencephalon
Determines Intelligence
Determines Personality
Interpretation of Sensory Impulses
Motor function
Planning and Organization
Sense of Smell
Touch Sensation
functions of the mesencephalon
Controls Responses to Sight
Eye Movement
Pupil Dilation
Body Movement
Hearing
location of the mesencephalon
The mesencephalon is the most rostral portion of the brainstem. It is located between the forebrain and brainstem
The mesencephalon consists of
the tectum and tegmentum
function of the prosencephalon
Chewing

Directs Sense Impulses Throughout the Body
Equilibrium
Eye Movement, Vision
Facial Sensation
Hearing, Phonation
Intelligence
Memory, Personality
Respiration
Salivation, Swallowing
smell, Taste
location of the prosencephalon
the most anterior portion of the brain
The prosencephalon cosists of
the telencephalon, striatum, diencephalon, lateral ventricle and third ventricle
Functions of the diencephalon
Chewing
Directs Sense Impulses Throughout the Body
Equilibrium
Eye Movement, Vision
Facial Sensation
Hearing
Phonation
Respiration
Salivation, Swallowing
Smell, Taste
location of the diencephalon
between the cerebral hemispheres and above the midbrain.
Structures of the diencephalon include
the thalamus, hypothalamus, the optic tracts, optic chiasma, infundibulum, Ventricle III, mammillary bodies, posterior pituitary gland and the pineal gland.
functions of the Rhombencephalon
Attention and Sleep
Autonomic Functions
Complex Muscle Movement
Conduction Pathway for Nerve tracts
Reflex Movement
Simple Learning
locations of the rhombencephalon
The rhombencephalon is the inferior portion of the brainstem
The rhombencephalon is comprised of
The rhombencephalon is comprised of the metencephalon, the myelencephalon, and the reticular formation
functions of the basal ganglia
Controls Cognition
Movement Coordination
Voluntary Movement
The basal ganglia consists of
the corpus stratium, subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra
Prosencephalon - Forebrain -consists of
Diencephalon
Telencephalon
where is the mesencephalon located?
Midbrain
Where is the rhombencephalon located and what are the subdivisions
Hindbrain

Metencephalon
Myelencephalon
The functions of the cerebrum
Function:
Determines Intelligence
Personality
Interpretation of Sensory Impulses
Motor Function
Planning and Organization
Touch Sensation
Functions of the diencephalon
Chewing
Directs Sense Impulses Throughout the Body
Equilibrium
Eye Movement, Vision
Facial Sensation
Hearing
Phonation
Respiration
Salivation, Swallowing
Smell, Taste
the location of the diencephalon
Location:
The diencephalon is located between the cerebral hemispheres and above the midbrain
the structures included in the diencephalon
the thalamus, hypothalamus, the optic tracts, optic chiasma, infundibulum, 3rd Ventricle, mammillary bodies, posterior pituitary gland and the pineal gland.
a major relay center to the cortex for all sensations (sight/smell, etc) except for smell.
thalamus
controls many functions including hunger, thirst, pain, pleasure and the sex drive and regulates the pituitary gland
Hypothalamus
Which part of the brain has these functions:
Alertness
Arousal
Breathing
Blood Pressure
Contains Most of the Crainal Nerves
Digestion
Heart Rate
Other Autonomic Functions
Relays Information Between the Peripheral Nerves and Spinal Cord to the Upper Parts of the Brain
Brainstem
Name the functions of the brainstem
Alertness
Arousal
Breathing
Blood Pressure
Contains Most of the Crainal Nerves
Digestion
Heart Rate
Other Autonomic Functions
Relays Information Between the Peripheral Nerves and Spinal Cord to the Upper Parts of the Brain
the brainstem consist of?
the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and the pons.
which part of the brain has these functions:
Controls Responses to Sight
Eye Movement
Pupil Dilation
Body Movement
Hearing
the midbrain
name the functions of the midbrain
Function:
Controls Responses to Sight
Eye Movement
Pupil Dilation
Body Movement
Hearing
the most rostral portion of the brainstem. It is located between the forebrain and brainstem.
the mesesncephalon/midbrain
Structures of the mesencephalon
consists of the tectum and tegmentum
Which part of the brain has theses functions:
Arousal
Assists in Controlling Autonomic Functions
Relays Sensory Information Between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum
Sleep
the pons
name the functions of the pons
Arousal
Assists in Controlling Autonomic Functions
Relays Sensory Information Between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum
Sleep
which part of the brain controls Autonomic Functions,
Relays Nerve Signals Between the Brain and Spinal Cord
Medulla oblongata
the function of the medulla oblongata
Controls Autonomic Functions
Relays Nerve Signals Between the Brain and Spinal Cord
which part of the brain controls Fine Movement Coordination
Balance and Equilibrium
Muscle Tone
cerebellum
name the functions of the cerebellum
Controls Fine Movement Coordination
Balance and Equilibrium
Muscle Tone
large collections of nuclei that modify movement on a minute-to-minute basis
The basal ganglia and cerebellum
The output of the cerebellum is _______, while the basal ganglia are _______.
excitatory, inhibitory.
located inside the temporal lobe, part of the limbic system and plays a part in memory and spatial navigation
hippocampus
Affected in:
Alzheimer's disease
Hypoxia
Encephalitis
symptoms of this include:
blood in the cerebrospinal fluid, complains of headache, photophobia, and have mild meningeal signs, worst headace of my life
subarachnoid hemorrhage
leads to a dilated ipsilateral pupil and contra- lateral hemiparesis.
Transtentorial (uncal) herniation, causes compression of third cranial nerve and the cerebral peduncle
These can be found in?

Lesion of Cervical Sympathetic Trunk
Ptosis
Miosis
Anhydrosis
Horner’s Syndrome
how does the eye focus for near vision
Contraction of ciliary muscle relaxes ligaments -> curvature of the lens increases
how does the eye focus for far vision
Relaxation of ciliary muscles tightens ligaments -> lens flattens, less curvature of the lens
Removal of the parathyroid glands results in?
tetany; muscle twitches and cramps due to decreased serum calcium levels
Amygdala
Involved in aggression and fear
Hippocampus
Required for the formation of long-term memories
Hypothalamus
regulates blood pressure, heart rate, hunger, thirst, sexual arousal, and the sleep/wake cycle;
where is the tectum found?
is the dorsal part of the midbrain
the tectum is subsivided into the?
inferior and the superior colliculi.
is involved in auditory processing
The inferior colliculus of the tectum which is in the dorsal part of the midbrain (mesencephalon)
The myelencephalon forms?
The myelencephalon forms the medulla in the adult brain
what nerves and structure is found in the myelencephalon (medulla)?
a portion of the fourth ventricle,
(CN IX),
(CN X),
(CN XI),
(CN XII),
and a portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII).
The metencephalon is composed of?
The metencephalon is composed of the pons and the cerebellum
which nerves arise from the metencephalon (pons)
a portion of the fourth ventricle,
(CN V),
(CN VI),
(CN VII),
and a portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII).
In what part of the brain will you find the substantia nigra
mesencephalon
what is the function of Wernicke's area on the temporal lobe
understanding and comprehension of spoken language.
function of Brocas's area on the temporal lobe
language comprehension and production