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18 Cards in this Set

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Chemical composition of the plasma membrane and relate it to membrane functions.
defines the extent of a cell, thereby separating two of the body's major fluid compartments- the intracellular fluid within cells and the extracellular fluid outside cells.
lipid bilayer?
lipid bilayer- forms the basic "fabric" of the membrane, is constructed largely of phospholipids, with small amounts of cholesterol.
what is it about phospholipids that makes them effective molecules for membrane structure.
each has a polar "head" that is charged and hydrophilic, and an uncharged, nonpolar "tail" made of 2 fatty acid chains and hydrophobic. encourages biological membranes to self-assemble into closed, generally spherical, structures and to real themselves quickly when torn
major atoms in carbs
hydogren to oxygen 2:1
CH2O - general formula
C 6 H 12 O 6 - glucose
major atoms in lipids
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
major atoms in proteins
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
major atoms in nucleic acids
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phophorus
atoms make up nucleotides
subclassification of carbs
1. simple- monosaccharide: glucose, fructose, galactose
disaccharide: sucrose= glucose = fructose (table sugar

2. complex- more thn 2 molecules of CHO- Polysaccharides: branched chain, starch (plants and animals, glycogen) and cellulose (fiber)
subclassifications of lipids
1. simple
- saturated: single bonds between carbon atoms. animal products, egg yolk, dairy
2. compound
-used for making anatomical structures, phosphoolipids
3.derived- (these are our hormones) used in regulation of bodily functions
- steriods
- prostaglandins
sublassifications of proteins
1. Primary- unique amino acid sequence (ever protein has one)
2. Secondary- fibrous proteins (rope-like), used for building anatomical/structural components (collagen, keratin, elastin, actin, myosin)
3. Tertiary- globular proteins (have an active site), used for controlling the physiology/function (enzymes, antibodies, albmin)
4. Quaternary- bonding between globular or fibrous proteins (hemoglobin, 4 amino acid chains)
subclassifications of nucleic acids
DNA and RNA
function of carbohydrates
1. ENERGY SOURCE
2. protein sparing
3. Metabolic Primer
4. Ruel for the Central Nervous System
5. Minor Role in Cell Structure
function of lipids
1. Energy source- fat is ideal energy source bc eachmolecule carries large quantitieisfor energy per unit weight and easily converted to energy
2. spare proteins
3. protection
4. insulation for body/organs
5. vitamin carriers
6. hunger depressant
7. major role in cell structure
functions of proteins
1. cell structure and function
2. regulate body functions
3. energy source
function of nucleic acids
criticala in the genetic regulation of the species or organism
function of vitamins
act as co-enzymes in metabloic reactions
function of minerals
make bones strong
define nitrogen and indicate possible causees of positive and negative nitrogen balance
homeostatic state is relected in the body's NITROGEN BALANCE.
positive- amount of protein being incorporated into tissue is greater than the amount being broken down and used for energy, ex. growing children, pregnant women, illness
negative- protein breakdown for energy exceeds the amount of protein being incorporated into tissues, ex. physical and emotional stress