Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/78

Click to flip

78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what bones compose the pelvic girdle?
manubrium and the sternum. it connects free parts of the limb to the axial skeleton
a spheroidal (ball & socket) joint that is the principal articulation of the shoulder?
glenohumeral joint
which glenohumeral ligament is a major anterior stabalizer especially with the arm abducted
inferior G.H. ligament
name the fibrocartilagenous thickening that surrounds the glenoid and deepens the glenoid cavity. it prevents abnormal motion, anchors the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex?
the labrum
this ligament prevents anterior instability when the shoulder is externally rotated and abducted 45 degrees?
middle glenohumeral ligament
this ligament works with the coracohumeral ligament to prevent inferior instability in the adducted arm
Superior Glenohumeral Ligament
a gliding joint with disc that anchors the shoulder girdle to the chest wall (sternum to clavicle)
sternoclavicular joint
a gliding joint with an incomplete disc that attaches the acromion and clavicle?
the acromioclavicular joint
the joint where the medial border of scapula articulates with posterior aspect of ribs 2-7?
the scapulothoracic joint
what is the ratio of glenohumeral to scapulothoracic motion during shoulder abduction?
2:1
you find "muscle wasting" on an exam, what is the significance?
chronic rotator Cuff tear, nerve injury
on exam you find "popeye" muscle, what is the significance?
proximal rupture of the long head of biceps
on exam you find "scapular winging" what is the significance?
serratus anterior injury (long thoracic nerve)
on exam you find a superior prominence aka a "piano key sign", what is the significance?
acromioclavicular seperation/ clavical fracture
you see an anterior prominence on exam of the shoulder, what is the significance?
glenohumeral dislocation, sternoclacivular injury
you find "systemic hyperlaxity" on exam of the glenohumeral area, what is the significance?
multidirectional instability
a test that uses passive forward flexion and is positive if P has pain in shoulder when it is moved >90 degrees
impingement sign
In tendinitis of the shoulder, the rotator cuff and/or biceps tendon become inflamed, usually as a result of being pinched by surrounding structures. The injury may vary from mild inflammation to involvement of most of the rotator cuff. When the rotator cuff tendon becomes inflamed and thickened, it may get trapped under the acromion. Squeezing of the rotator cuff is called?
impingement syndrome
if patient has pain in shoulder when performing this "dump out can" test (passive forward flex to 90 & internal rotation) what is indicated?
Hawkins test indicates impingement syndrome
anterior shoulder instability is indicated when this test of abducting the shoulder to 90 & external rotation?
apprehension test
when applying downward traction on patient's arm, inferior laxity is indicated, what test are you performing?
sulcus sign
if a patient is unable to place arm behind back and lift posteriorly, what problem is indicated?
+ lift off sign= subscapularis tear
what is the technique for the wrights test?
extension, abduction, external rotation of arm, neck rotated away
what does a positive wrights test indicate?
if loss of pulse, reprod of symptoms = thoracic outlet syndrome
a maneuver used for closed reduction of the anterior glenohumeral dislocation that Pt lies prone on table with weight on arm?
Stimson Maneuver
A type of closed reduction of glenohumeral disloc. that pt is supine, steady downward traction applied at elbow, combined with slow gradual external rotation and abduction of limb. not commonly used.
mitch maneuver
a type of closed reduction with pt supine, PA places sole of shoeless foot in axilla, and pulls pt wrist with steady longitudinal traction
hippocratic maneuver
a type of closed reduction for the glenohumeral dislocation that requires two people and a sheet?
traction/countertraction
stimson maneuver with medical manipulation of tip of scapula
scapular manipulation
name the lesion caused by an anterior capsular injury associated with a tear of the glenoid labrum off the anterior glenoid rim?
bankhart lesion
name a lesion caused by a compression fracture of the articular surface of the humeral head posterolaterally that is created by the sharp edge of the anterior glenoid as the humeral head dislocates over it
hill-sachs lesion
what is the most common bone fractured?
the clavicle
name the 3 types of clavicle fractures w/ location and percentage of occurance
class A 80% middle third
class B 15% distal third
class C 5% proximal third
what is the MOI for an acromioclavicular separation?
fall onto point of shoulder. tenderness is felt at the junction or the site of the AC joint
an inflammation of a round, flattened sac that is lined by synovium and separate bare areas of bone from overlapping muscles or skin and tendons is called?
bursitis
what are some symptoms of bursitis?
inflammation, localized tenderness, warmth, edema, erythema of the skin (if superficial), loss of function
Patient informes you that he worked out twice yesterday. He was bench pressing more weight than usual and states that he has pain when moving his arm now. upon exam you can elicit pain on forced external rotation at 90 degrees abduction and hear a "pop" and "click". what do you suspect and what will be your definitive treatment?
a glenoid labrum injury. ct scan or MRI w/ contrast may allow early detection.
the tendons of what 4 muscles make up the rotator cuff?
supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres MINor
Subscapularis
patient fell from tree and reports that she grabbed onto a branch while falling. She how has a "claw hand" or a paralysis of the inferior brachial plexus. what nerves are most likely injured?
c8-T1 "klumpke paralysis"
patient states that she carries a heavy backpack every day and now her hand is stuck in a "waiter's tip" position. what part of the brachial plexus was affected to cause this?
the superior, C5-6. aka Erb-Duchenne palsy
upon PE, you find your patient to have resisting supination of the R forearm. You write in the chart + Yergason test and assume what diagnosis?
Bicipital Tendonitis. Tx: pt, activity modification, NSAID's
what is the name of the classification system for proximal humerous fractures?
Neer classification; non-displaced vs. displaced
using the Neer classification what values determine a non-displaced fx?
displacement < 1 cm or angulated < 45 degress, regardless of the fracture pattern or # of fragments
using the Neer Classification what values determine a 2 part displaced fx?
fracture either through: the anatomical neck, surgical neck, greater tuberosity or lesser tuberosity
according to the Neer classification what determines a 3 part fx; displaced?
fx's of the surgical neck w/ fx's of either the greater tuberosity or lesser tuberosity
according to the Neer classification, what determines a 4 part fx; displaced?
fx's of the anatomical neck & fx's of the greater and lesser tuberosities
upon PE, you find your patient to have resisting supination of the R forearm. You write in the chart + Yergason test and assume what diagnosis?
Bicipital Tendonitis. Tx: pt, activity modification, NSAID's
what is the name of the classification system for proximal humerous fractures?
Neer classification; non-displaced vs. displaced
using the Neer classification what values determine a non-displaced fx?
displacement < 1 cm or angulated < 45 degress, regardless of the fracture pattern or # of fragments
using the Neer Classification what values determine a 2 part displaced fx?
fracture either through: the anatomical neck, surgical neck, greater tuberosity or lesser tuberosity
according to the Neer classification what determines a 3 part fx; displaced?
fx's of the surgical neck w/ fx's of either the greater tuberosity or lesser tuberosity
if the humerous is fractured at the surgical neck, what part of the brachial plexus is in danger of damage?
C5-6, deltoid atrophy,
if the humeral is fractured at the radial groove, what nerve can be damaged?
radial nerve
if the humerous is fractured at the distal end, what nerve is most likely to be damaged?
the median nerve
if the medial epicondyle of the humerous is fractured what nerve is most likely to be damaged?
ulnar nerve
MC MOI for the proximal humerous?
foosh. S/S pain, swelling, tenderness.
which area of the proximal humerous, if fractured, compromises vascularity?
anatomical neck
P presents with pain and swelling in upper arm. Deformity is seen. arm is shortened with gross motion & crepitus on gentle manipulation. where is the fracture most likely to been seen on AP lat c shoulder & elbow?
midshaft humerus fractures
a nursemaid's elbow is usually caused from a sudden jerking of child's hand while in pronation. what portion of the arm is injured?
subluxation of the radial head from the annular ligament
fx of the mid or proximal ulna with anterior dislocation of the radial head. MOI forceful pronation or direct blow to dorsum of ulna
monteggia fx
radial shaft fracture with associated dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint DRUG.
Galeazzi fx/dislocation
pain at lateral humeral epicondyle, reproduced by extending the wrist against resistance is commonly called?
tennis elbow
pain at medial humeral epicondyle is commonly called
pitcher's or golfer's elbow
a flexed PIP joint and a hyperextended DIP joint. usually develops over 10-21 days
boutonniere deformity
a disruption of the extensor tendon over the distal phalanx with flexion at the DIP joint and extention or hyperextention at the PIP joint
mallet finger
an infection of the digital synovial sheaths that is usually confined to affected finger and is based on 4 classic findings upon PE?
flexor tenosynovitis
what are the four classic findings of flexor tenosynovitis?
1.tenderness over flexor tendon sheath
2. symmetric swelling of finger "sausage finger"
3. pain with passive extension
4. flexed posture of the involved digit at rest
a painful condition caused by the narrowing of the sheath that surrounds the finger tendon. this inflammation is due to the overuse of the finger and tendons slide through a snug tunnel.
trigger finger
the disease is an entrapment tendonitis of the tendons contained within the first dorsal compartment at the wrist. CC is pain w thumb motion
De Quervain's Tenosynovitis
what test is the most classic finding in De Quervain's Tenosynovitis?
a positive finkelstein test.
a superficial infection of epithelium lateral to the nail plate?
paronychia
closed-space infections of the fingertip pulp, that usually lead to abscess formation, edema and rapid development of increased pressure in a closed space.
FELON
caused by herpes simplex virus, and is an intense, painful skin infection. Less firm than a felon, and has tiny fluid-filled blebs
herpetic whitlow
what tx are animal/human bites usually sensitive to?
ampicillin and penicillin. (augmentin in practice)
a syndrome that usually results from irritation of C8 and T1 innervated nerves; a cervical rib, etc that causes neurologic, venous or arterial symptoms
Thoracic outlet syndrome
the syndrome is characterized by pain, paresthesias and weakness in the median nerve distribution of the hand.
Carpal TUnnel
the effect of pressure on the "funny bone" causing pain, paresthesia's to the ulnar nerve distribution
cubital tunnel syndrome
with the hand supinated and the extensors aided by gravity, hand function may appear normal, but when the hand is pronated the wrist and hand will drop. what is the common name for this injury?
saturday night palsy