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76 Cards in this Set

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Respiratory system functions
1. smell
2. voice
3. regulation of blood pH (C)2 levels)
4. gas exchange
nose
cartilage bone
nasal cavity
have bumps that increase the SA to expose to mucous membranes (helps trap dirt and debris) and lubricate/moisturize the passageway
pharynx
throat, junctional passageway
nasopharynx
behind nasal cavity, air only
oropharynx
behind mouth, air and food
sinuses (defin)
air filled cavities, lined with mucous membranes
helps to lighten head and for resonance of voice
sinuses (4)
1. maxillary
2. ethmoidal
3. frontal
4. sphenoidal
larynx
made of cartilage
epiglottis
most superior piece of larynx, prevents choking
vocal chords
2 kinds
false
true
False vocal chords
work with epiglottis to prevent choking (close)
True vocal chords
produce voice
pitch
tight= high tension
loose= low tension
loudness
pressure of air forced on vocal chords
Air pathway
nasal OR oral cavity → pharynx → larynx → trachea → bronchi → 1 bronchi → 2 bronchi → 3 bronchi → bronchiles → alveoli
cartilage rings
C shaped, around the trachea
lungs
contain bronchial tree
respiratory diff. circulatory
happens in the alveoli
serous membranes 2
visceral pleura and parietal pleura
visceral pleura
on the surface of the lung
parietal pleura
outer edge of pleural cavity
pleural fluid
for surface tension, found in pleural cavity
inhalation
movement of air, breathing in= ribs move up and out
increase size of lung, b/c of pleural fluid, when visceral pleura moves out, so does thoracic cavity
when expanded, lower pressure air from outside outside under higher pressure moves in
Exhalation
recoil of sk mm alveoli
surfactant
soapy substance that decreases surface tention inside alveoli so they can pop open
Respiratory cycle
1 inhalation
1 exhalation
Spirometry
measure and study of volumes and capacities
Spirograph
graph related to volumes and capacities
4 volumes
1. tidal volume
2. inspiratory reserve volume
3. expiratory reserve volume
4. residual
capacities 2
1. vital capacity
2. total lung capacity
vital capacity
vital to life, inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) + tidal volume (VT) + Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV)
Total lung capacity
vital capacity + residual

IRV + VT + ERV + RV
Gas exchange
takes place in the capillaries and alveoli
Internal respiration
inside body
External respiration
lungs, air from the outside
Respiratory membrane
very thin, assist with gas exchange
Digestive system functions (4)
1. ingestion
2. digestion
3. absorption
4. elimination
Ingestion
taking food in
digestion
mechanical: movement involved
chemical: chemical involved
absorption
communication between digestive and circulatory systems
elimination
eliminating waste (defecation)
Histology (4 layers)
1. mucosa: touches food, inntermost layer
2. submucosa: 2 layer
3. muscularis: 3 layer, smooth mm
4. serosa: 4 layer, serous membrane
Serosa
aka visceral peritoneum, covers organs
parietal peritoneum
lining abdominal cavity
mastication
chewing
oral cavity
site of ingestion and chemical digestion
teeth
primary: 20 (children)
secondary: 32 (adults)
help with mechanical digestion
salivary glands
contain saliva, contain enzymes (amylase: helps with breakdown of starch for chemical digestion)
Salivary glands contain...
saliva, amylase, water, mucus, electrolytes
parotid salivary gland
largest gland
sublingual gland
below tongue
submandibular
below mandible
pharynx
junctional passageway, carries air and food
oropharynx
receive food
nasopharynx
should not carry food
laryngopharynx
briefly carries food
deglutition
swallowing
3 phases of deglutition
1. voluntary
2. pharyngeal
3. esophageal
voluntary (food)
under conscious control, chew food, tongue pushes it back to oral cavity
pharyngeal
pushes food to esophagus, involuntary, bolus passes through oropharynx, uvula flips up to keep out of nose, epiglotis flips up to keep out of lungs
esophageal
peristalsis: alternating wavelike contractions, mechanical to help propel food
1. innercircular: around
2. outerlongitudinal: lengthwise, "gathers"
Lower esophageal sphincter
ringlike structure to prevent backflow. After esophagus, above stomach
stomach- 4 main regions
1. cardiac- where food first arrives
rugae
waves in cardiac area that increase surface area, allow for expansion
fundic region
lateral to cardiac
body
largest part
pyloric
end, meets sm. intestine
mechanical (2 parts)
1. peristalsis
2. mixinc- done by oblique layer
pepsin
enzyme, breaks down proteins into amino acids, produced as an inactive substance (pepsinogin), mush be activated
pepsinogin → HCl → pepsin
Cells in stomach
rugae have gastric pits with gastric glands where pepsinogin and HCl are produced
Gastric glands
1. chief cells: produce pepsinogin
2. parietal cells- produce HCl
HCl
Hydrochloric acid
Liver and pancreas
exocrine, produces digestive enzymes (pancreatic enzymes),
accessory structures, helps with digestion
Gallbladder
stores bile (for lipid digestion) goes to small intestine
Bile and pancreatic enzymes
introduced into sm. intestine to break down food further, balance pH for best digestion