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73 Cards in this Set

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3 Functions of respiration
1. gas exchange (intake O2, eliminate CO2)
2. regulates blood pH
3. site of receptor cells for sense of smell and filters air and production and propagation of sounds
septum
part that divides the nasal cavity, made of bone and cartilage
nasal conchae
3 lateral projections from septum to increase surface area, aides in olfaction, warm air and remove particles during inhalation
paranasal sinuses
reduce weight in skull, extend from the nasal cavity into the surrounding bones. Also changes voice tone. There are four: ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal, and maxillary. Mucosa lining in these cavities also warm air and move particles. These cavities are vulnerable to infection and sinus problems.
pharynx
region between the nasal and oral cavities and the larynx and esophagus. Made up of the auditory tube, tonsils, and pharyngeal plexus.
auditory tube
connects posterior nasal cavity with middle ear cavity. Equalizes pressure across the tympanic membrane.
pharyngeal, palatine and lingual tonsils.
glandular lymphoid tissues. they are important in immune responses to foreign bodies.
pharyngeal plexus
innervates most pharyngeal muscles. Includes CN IX, X, XI, and superior cervical sympathetic ganglion.
Larynx
consists of 9 cartilages including : epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, tracheal cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, etc.
epiglottis
folds down to direct food into the esophagus
thyroid cartilage
provides attachment for vocal cords
cricoid cartilage
between thyroid cartilage and trachea
cricothyroid membrane
(ligament), a distinct surface landmark just inferior to the position of the vocal cords that anchor on the interior side of the anterior thyroid cartilage.
tracheal rings
below larynx, help hold the trachea open when intra-tracheal pressure drops during the inhalation stage of normal breathing. they are necessary to support windpipe.
phonation
when muscles alter the position of the laryngeal cartilages-arytenoid cart. affect tension on vocal cords=for higher pitch sounds. innervated by superior and recurrent laryngeal nn. (branches of vagus N. CNX) at puberty the vocal cords become thicker and longer-->vibrate more slowly and result in lower pitch sounds
trachea
tubular pipe extending from larynx to its bifurcation in the thoracic cavity, supported by c-shaped rings
tracheal rings are made up of...
-hyaline cartilage,
-posterior gap is bridged by smooth muscle.
-ciliated columnar epthelium helps move dust particles collected in the mucous secretions of the windpipe.
tracheotomy
when muscle spasms close space between vocal cords temporarily, put a hole through the anterior thorat between tracheal rings to reestablish air flow. These are necessary also during certain surgical procedures.
posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
contraction opens vocal folds
lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
contraction closes folds
laryngitis
inflammation of the vocal folds causing hoarseness
larygeal cancer
almost exclusive found in smokers and tobacco chewers
respiratory membranes
simple cuboidal epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
lining of alveolar duct
lining of nasal cavity
lining of pulmonary alveoli
lining of upper respiratory tract
carina
point where trachea divides into two primary bronchi.
particularly sensitive to contact and can trigger cough reflexes.
primary bronchi
branch off trachea and have different orientations.
right bronchus
descends more in line with the trachea so that accidentally swallowed object tend to lodge in it
bronchial tree
branches from the trachea and ends as the terminal bronchioles and represents the organization of conducting system within the lungs.
branching of bronchial tree
trachea--primary bronchi--secondary bronchi--tertiary bronchi--bronchioles--terminal bronchioles
level at which cartilage rings have disappeared and replaced by smooth muscle and non-ciliated, cuboidal epithelium has replaced the ciliated epithelium which causes the macrophages to have the primary responsibility for removing particles that get this far into the lungs
level of terminal bronchioles
terminal bronchioles end at respiratory bronchioles which end at...
alveolar sacs and alveoli
alveoli
sites of gas exchange,
development is initiated at around embryonic week 24; surfactant molecules critical for gas-diffusion develop late and their absense is a major threat for premature infant survival
alveolar capillary membrane
thickness is only 1/16 diameter of RBC, allows for rapid diffusion of gases. 300 mil. alveoli provide a SA of 70m2 per lung
functions of lymphatic system
reabsorb and transport extracellular fluids and foreign agent back to the blood system. help drain inhaled pollutants not picked up by membrane cilia. also a route for cancer metastasis.
metaplasia
stressed epithelial cells convert from a columnar organization to a stratified organization. it is reversible up until the final step to anaplasia
anaplasia
irreversible and tissue cells become tumor cells.
metastasis
real danger potential of most lung tumors
chronic bronchitis
air passages narrow due to inflammation, swelling of tissues and excess mucos production, obstructing air flow into and out of lung alveoli
asthma
fluid buildup(edema) in respiratory mucosa, excess mucous production and episodic muscle spasms contributing to airway obstruction.
emphysema
accumulative damage to lunch connective tissue and rupture of alveolar walls, resulting in larger but fewer alveoli. larger alveoli leads to a net loss of alveolar SA leading to decreased gas diffusion and loss of lung function. it is accumulative and irreversible.
fluid between pleura
viscous and allows lungs to slide easily during inspiration and expiration. it cannot compress or stretch, prevents irritation from rubbing of two layers
pleural cavity is line by...
parietal pleura(chest wall) and visceral pleura (lining of lung)
function of fluid in pleral cavity
allows lungs to slide easily during expiration and inspiration.
what happens to pressure and volume in inspiration?
increase volume and decrease pressure
lungs expand to "fill the vacuum", expanding alveoli cause a decrease in pressure to draw air from the environment where pressure is greater
what happens to pressure and volume during expiration?
decrease volume and increase pressure
no force is "pulling" on the lung tissue and the elastic fibers of the lung are able to shorten exerting a force on the alveoli, pressure in the alveoli increases and air is forced out.
during inspiration, thoracic volume increases in what 3 dimensions?
vertical(superoinferior), anteroposterior, and transverse (lateral)
pneumothorax
air in the thoracic cavity due to puncture or disruption of chest wall
thoracocentesis
hypodermic needle can be inserted through an intercostal space into the pleural cavity to sample fluids or remove pleural blood, pus, or air. Used to check for infection or to remove fluid accumulation.
muscles involved in respiration (quiet breathing)
*intercostals--all external intercostals and part of internals) increase a-p dimension of thoracic cavity
*diaphragm--increase superoinferior dimension of thoracic cavity
muscles involved in forceful respiration (inhalation)
*sternocleidomastoid--innervated by CN XI and cervical spinal nerves, elevates clavicle and sternum, rotates head to opposite side
*scalene muscles--innervated by cervical spinal nerves, elevate first and second ribs
*pectoralis major and minor--innervated by pectoral nerves from medial and lateral cords, exert outward force on the ribs
*trapezius-elevates shoulders
muscles of forcefull respiration (expiration)
*internal intercostals, ext./int. abdominal obliques, transversus and rectus abdominis--innervated by thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves
pneumothorax
air in the thoracic cavity due to puncture or disruption of chest wall
thoracocentesis
hypodermic needle can be inserted through an intercostal space into the pleural cavity to sample fluids or remove pleural blood, pus, or air. Used to check for infection or to remove fluid accumulation.
muscles involved in respiration (quiet breathing)
*intercostals--all external intercostals and part of internals) increase a-p dimension of thoracic cavity
*diaphragm--increase superoinferior dimension of thoracic cavity
muscles involved in forceful respiration (inhalation)
*sternocleidomastoid--innervated by CN XI and cervical spinal nerves, elevates clavicle and sternum, rotates head to opposite side
*scalene muscles--innervated by cervical spinal nerves, elevate first and second ribs
*pectoralis major and minor--innervated by pectoral nerves from medial and lateral cords, exert outward force on the ribs
*trapezius-elevates shoulders
muscles of forcefull respiration (expiration)
*internal intercostals, ext./int. abdominal obliques, transversus and rectus abdominis--innervated by thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves
Dilation of bronchioles is via the ___________
Constriction of bronchioles is via the _____________
autonomic Sympathetic
autonomic parasympatheic
DAS, CAP
Dorsal respiratory group controls what muscles?
Ventral respiratory group controls what muscles?
inspiration
expiration
DIR, VER
Digestive processes
Ingestion-->digestion-->propulsion-->absorption-->defecation
propulsion begins ______________
in the oral pharynx
most absorption takes place
in the duodenum, but some is in stomach
3 types of salivary glands
parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
function of saliva
cleans teeth, enzymes digest starches, lubrication of food for swallowing
mumps
infection and inflammation of parotid gland
palate
forms the roof of the mouth, separating oral from nasal cavities
hard palate
maxillae and palatine bones
soft palate (=uvola)
closes off nasal cavities during swallowing
where does tongue attach
mandible, hyoid, styloid process and palate
tongue papillae
sensitive to touch, temperature, pain (CN V)and receptors for taste (CN VII, IX, X)
esophagus
muscular tube made up of a combination of skeletal and smooth muscle. connects the oropharynx and pharynx to the stomach
dysphagia
dysfunction of the swallowing mechanism. (1 of every 17 people develop some form), it is not common and could be muscles or neurological fxn
cardiac sphincter
-prevents stomach contents from entering the esophagus
-not fully functional in babies(causes spit up)
esophageal reflux
weakening of sphincter, acids move into esophagus, can be dangerous when damages extensive esophageal venus plexus (reflux esophagitis-thickening in tissue) can cause ulcers
development of the gut
1. primary intestinal loop forms
2. herniation of loop, 90* counterclockwise rotation
3. retraction of the intestines back into abdominal cavity, 180* counterclockwise rotation