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79 Cards in this Set

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All about the Kidney
- begins at renal pelvis; proximal urethra
- from T12- L3
- protected by T11-T12 (floating ribs)
- lined by transitional epithelium
- lt. kidney slightly superior
- adrenal glands on top
- parenchyma cells: delicat and fragile
-> protects kidney from physical harm
Cross section of a kidney from innermost to outermost:
inner: tough, fibrous CT renal capsule
2nd: adipose capsule
3rd: renal fascia
outer: pararenal fat
What is "floating kidney"?
extreme starvation, lose adipose capsule, fibers b/n fascia and renal capsule break down, no fat
organs that are fused in the wall and are prevented from moving
examples: kidney, ureter, digestive system
How many minor calyces form one major calyx?
How many major calyces drain into the renal pelvis?
What are the functioning units of the kidney?
- cortical (85%)
- juxtamedullary (15%)
Cortical Nephrons are located where?
Juxtamedullary nephrons are located where?
Below cortex
What occurs in the Bowman's capsule?
H20, Cl, Na, K are taken out regardless if it's excess or not
- glomerular filtrate
- take waste products of blood
What is the mechanism of the nephron?
to expel Na and other ions and return it to the body, filter blood constantly
What is the epithelium lining between afferent and efferent arterioles (distal convoluted tubule)?
simple columnar
What is the epithelium before the distal convoluted tubule?
What does the macula densa do?
monitor blood composition, reads the content of blood going through afferent and efferent arterioes, uses juxtaglomerular apparatus, send info to the brain to see if to hold the blood or not
What is a collecting tract composed of?
Composed of area cribosa (ducts of bellini) uniting
All about ureters:
retroperitoneal organ
fused in the backwall
urine will destroy kidney parenchyma
All about the Bladder:
- peritoneal organ
- relax and stretched: becomes smooth
- little indentations on surface of bladder is called RUGAE
- TRIGONE is smooth
Bladder is anchored by:
- ligaments that were a remnant of the occuled arteries (fetal)
- holds bladder in place
Muscles of the bladder include:
- outer longitudinal
- middle circular
- inner longitudinal

All about the urethra:
- internal urethral sphincter joins bladder with urethra
- urogenital diaphragm is on same level as external urethral opening
- stratified squamous nonkeratinized lines the urethral opening
Blood supply of the urinary system:
Renal artery -> segmental artery-> interlobar artery -> arcuate artery -> interlobular artery -> afferent arteriole
What are peritubular capillaries?
capillaries that run alongside proximal convoluted tubule
What is vasa recta?
capillaries that run along descending/ascending loop of henle that decide what stuff to expel from blood
What are the main components of the Endocrine system?
- nervous system which controls the HORMONAL component
Nervous system in relation to the endocrine system is responsible for:
- immediate effects
- short lived responses
hormal component in endocrine system is responsible for:
- slow and steady
- long lasting effects
Endocrine glands consists of:
- Pituitary
- Thyroid
- Parathyroid
- Adrenal
- Pineal
Accessory endocrine glands are:
Heart, kidney, gonads, and pancreas
All about the Pituitary (Hypophysis):
- size of grape
- projects ventally
- releases hormones that controls, heart, pancreas, thyroid, etc.
- suspended from hypothalamus by a stalk called the infundibulum and is encased by a diaphragma sella and is rested on the sella turcica of the skull of the sphenoid bone
Histology and gross anatomy of the Pituitary gland:
As a fetus: oral ectoderm (bottom portion) fuses with the hypothalamus.

Gross anatomy:
anterior: pars distalis
fused portion: pars intermedia
posterior portion: pars nervosa (directly connected to hypothalamus via infundibulum which is wrapped around by pars tuberalis)
which parts of pituitary gland produces hormones?
Pars distalis and pars nervosa
Pars distalis has what?
Parenchyma has: chomophobes (inactive chromophils), and chromophils (acidophils, and basophils)
- chromophils are responsible for hormones that are produced
What hormones are produced by pars distalis?
TSH: thyroid stimulating hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone: regulate activity of cells in adrenal glands
FSH: follicle stimulating hormone- regulate development of oocytes and sperm
Luteinizing hormone: ovulation, regulation of androgens in males, prepares body for pregnancy
Prolactin: mammary glands, production of milk
Growth hormone
Melanocyte stimulating hormone: control pigment of skin in stratum germinativum (only occus in fetus and pregnant women)
Pars intermedia produces what?
Melanocyte stimulating hormone
How do hormones enter the blood stream?
Median eminence sends axons to infundibulum that enter primary plexus that drain to portal vessels that go to secondary/inferior plexus in pars distalis that activate cells to produce hormones that enter into inferior plexus
How do the hormones enter the bloodstream again?
Median eminence release regulatory hormone via axons into infundibulum that enter the 1 plexus and goes to portal vessels into 2 plexus where hormone leaves blood and activates cells that produce TSH via hypophyseal vein into thyroid
Components of pars nervosa:
pituicites (supporting cells)
Two different types of nuclei that has to do with pars nervosa:
paraventricular nucleus: oxytocin: responsible for contraction of uterine msucle (about to give birth) and activate milk production

supraoptic nucleus: vasopressin: anti diuretic hormone (ADH) prevention fo excreting too much H20 in urine
What is the protein neurophysin?
function is to get hormone and pulls it along down the axon to pars nervosa
What is stored as a colloid in the pars nervosa?
Oxytocin (composed of oxytocin and vasopressin)
What is a colloid?
Also called herring bodies, it is a gel like substance of oxytocin with vasopressin that is stored and will dissolve when needed
Cross section of ureters:
- star shaped lumen when relaxed
- lined by transitional epithelium
- 2 muscular layers: inner longitudinal (run toward with the ureter) and outer circular (acollar)
- has adventitita: a collection of fibrous fuse with the ureter at the back of the wall
All about the Thyroid gland:
bilobed; situated anteriorly of thyroid cartilage
covered by tough fibrous CT capsule
capsule radiates inward and creates LOBULES
Within each thyroid lobule there are:
parafollicular cells, follicle cells
Follicle cells have: (2 things)
colloid stored in them and thyroxine
simple cuboidal epithelium
Parafollicular cells produce what?
Calcitonin: lowers levels of Ca in blood
- stimulates osteoblasts and osteocytes
- inhibit osteoclast
- stimulate kidney to expel Ca
Blood supply to Thyroid:
Arteries: Superior Thyroid Artery (external carotid), Inferior Thyroid Artery (Thyrocervical trunk)

Veins: Superior Thyroid Vein (internal jugular), Middle Thyroid vein (internal jugular), Inferior Thyroid Vein (brachiocephalic vein)
All about Parathyroid glands:
- usually 4 (sometimes 2 or 6)
- posterior aspect of thyroid
- held to thyroid by CT of capsule (in capsule that surrounds thyroid)
- invaded by CT septa and divdes parathyroid into lobules (like thyroid)
Parathyroid glands consist of:
chief (principal) cells: produce parathyroid hormone that INCREASES Ca in blood by inhibiting osteoblasts and osteocytes, and stimulates osteoclasts, kidney is left alone
oxyphil cells (inactive form of chief cells and will not take up a stain)
As you get older these two organs get invaded by adipose:
Thyroid and Parathyroid
The 3 phases of swallowing are:
1. Buccal phase: push back food by raising tongue and passes through FAUCES
2. Pharyngeal phase: pharyngeal constrictors contract in sequence and ends up in larynx
3. Esophageal phase: peristalsis contractions
Fauces consists of:
1. palatopharyngeal arch: made of m. palatopharyngeus and CT and epithelia with the arch running from palate to anterior part of pharynx
2. palatoglossal arch: m. palatoglossus with Ct and epith.; palate to base of tongue
Function of larynx:
bring food in esophagus
air in trachea
All about the esophagus:
- muscular tube ~20 cm in lengths
- usually CLOSED
- origin: larynx
goes through esophageal hiatus in muscular diaphragm to the stomach
Esophageal Mucosa
1. Mucosa (3 different layers)
- lining epithel: stratified squamous nonkeratinized (subject to physical stress)
- lamina propria
- muscularis mucosa:(muscularis interna) superiorly absent (larynx not present; x-section near stomach = present)
Esophageal Submucosa
- esophageal glands proper secretes:
1. mucus (lines lumen giving slippery surface)
2. antibacterial agent
Esophageal Muscularis externa:
2 muscular layers
-inner circular layer
- outer longitudinal layer
*mixture of skeletal and smooth muscle
up near larynx is skeletal then goes down proportionally and at stomach, is just smooth muscle
Esophageal Serosa or Adventitia
-within abdominal cavity is lined with peritoneum
- outside of abdominal cavity is lined with adventitia
- for most of its length: esophagus is covered with adventitia
what are the 2 types of peritoneum?
visceral: lines organs
parietal: outside
what are retroperitoneal organs?
sigmoid colon
proximal pt. of duodenum
What are mesenteries?
double/four layer folds that suspend organs of visceral layers
example: lesser omentum, transverse meso colon, greater omentum, meso appendix, falciform ligament
What is the lesser omentum?
2 fold; runs between liver and stomach; stomach hangs b/c of this
Esophageal Muscularis externa:
2 muscular layers
-inner circular layer
- outer longitudinal layer
*mixture of skeletal and smooth muscle
up near larynx is skeletal then goes down proportionally and at stomach, is just smooth muscle
What is transverse meso colon?
associated with large intestine; 2 fold; suspends transverse colon in abdominal cavity
What is the greater omentum?
4 fold: suspends itself from stomach; attaches to transverse colon and dangles inferiorly from intestine; contains blood vessels, nerves, lots of fat conduit for lympatics and vessels
What is the meso appendix?
mesentery that suspends appendix
What is the falciform ligament?
attaches liver to anterior wall of abdominal wall; only organ that contacts anterior wall; all other organs hang from the back wall
The upper portion of the esophagus is covered with?
What are the two sphincters associated with the esophagus?
- pharyngoesophageal: prevent bolus from entering pharynx
- gastroesophageal: prevents chyme from entering esophagus
Name all the parts of the stomach:
cardia, fundus, body, pyloric antrum, pyloric sphincter
The internal surface of the stomach is covered with:
Stomach's mucosa
lining epithelium: simple columnar epithelium
lamina propria: major source of gastic glands
muscularis mucosa (internal):
- inner circular
- middle longitudinal
- outer circular
Stomach's submucosa:
Stomach's muscularis externa:
- inner oblique
- middle circular
- outer longitudinal
Stomach's fourth layer
Proximal duodenum is covered with:
Small intestine is covered with:
Proximal duodenum produces what:
- alkaline buffers to neutralize acidic pH
- urogastrone: stimulate mitosis b/c cells are burned away
Which duct drains bile from the gall bladder?
Cystic duct