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192 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the pineal gland secretes
glucagon
what hormone is responsible for programming T lymphocytes?
thymosin
the posterior pituitary gland secretes
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
the anterior pituitary gland secretes
growth hormone, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone (e-all are secreted by the anterior pituitary)
the hormone that is considered the basal metabolic hormone is
thyroxine
the thyroid gland secretes
thyroxine and calcitonin
the thymus gland secretes
thymosin
which hormone is the most important hormone regulating the amount of calcium circulating in the blood?
parathyroid hormone
the pancreas secretes
insulin and glucagon
the ovary secretes
progesterone and estrogen
the ovary secretes
progesterone and estrogen
this hormone is necessary for glucose to be taken up by body cells
insulin and glucagon
what hormone is a short term stress hormone?
epinephrine
the testes secretes
testosterone
the ovary secretes
progesterone and estrogen
this hormone is necessary for glucose to be taken up by body cells
insulin and glucagon
which hormone is a short term stress hormone?
epinephrine
the testes secretes
testosterone
the parathyroid gland secretes
parathyroid hormone
abnormal hairiness, masculinization
(what is produced in excessive amounts?)
testosterone
abnormally small stature, normal proportions
(what is produced in inadequate amounts?)
growth hormones
bulging eyeballs, nervousness, increased pulse rate, weight loss (Graves' disease)
(what is produced in excessive amounts?)
testosterone
cretinism, a type of dwarfism in which the individual retains childlike proportions and is mentally retarded
what is produced in inadequate amounts?
thyroxine
demineralization of bone, spontaneous fractures
(what is produced in excessive amounts?)
parathyroid
excessive thirst, high blood glucose levels, acidosis
(what is produced in inadequate amounts?)
insulin
excessive urination without high blood glucose levels, caused dehydration and tremendous thirst
(what is produced in inadequate amounts?)
antidiuretic hormone
goiter
(what is produced in inadequate amounts?)
thyroxine
lantern jaw, large hands and feet (acromegaly in adults)
(what is produced in excessive amounts?)
growth hormone
lethargy, falling hair, low basal metabolic rate, obesity (myxedema in the adult)
(what is produced in inadequate amounts?)
thyroxine
tetany
(what is produced in inadequate amounts?)
parathyroid hormone
the adrenal medulla secretes
epinephrine
abnormally large stature, relatively normal body proportions
(what is produced in excessive amounts?)
growth hormone
adrenocorticotropic hormone
(Correct type of stimulus)
hormonal
parathyroid hormone
(Correct type of stimulus)
humoral
insulin
(Correct type of stimulus)
humoral
thyroxine
(Correct type of stimulus)
hormonal
thyroxine
(Correct type of stimulus)
hormonal
epinephrine
(Correct type of stimulus)
neural
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
(Correct type of stimulus)
neural
estrogen and progesterone
(Correct type of stimulus)
hormonal
calcitonin
(Correct type of stimulus)
calcitonin
The endocrine system's means of control is much ______ than that of the ______, the other major body system that acts to maintain homeostasis.
slower and more prolonged; nervous system
chemical messengers are called
hormones
only cells with the proper ________ on their cell membranes are activated by teh chemical messengers
receptors
most hormones are _________ molecules
steroid or amino acid-based
skeletal muscle isn't involved in
propulsions of a substance through an organ and maintaining posture
the component that releases calcium (calcium cow) during contraction
the BARN!!!!!! aka-sarcoplasmic reticulum
in comparing sarcomeres of a relaxed skeletal muscle, which of these would appear reduced in the contracted muscle fiver?
more than one is correct
after attachment of acetycholine to its receptors at the neuromuscular junction, the next stop is
transmit the action potential through the t-tubules
detachment of the crossbridges occurs directly after
attachment of ATP to myosin cross bridges
the connective tissue covering that encloses several muscle fibers is called the
perymysium
the function of the t-tubules in muscle contraction is
to provide a rapid means of transmission of the action potential deep into the muscle cell
the site where a nerve impulse is transmitted to the sarcolemma is the
neuromuscular junction
contraction elicited by a single brief stimulus is
a twitch
ATP directly powers
detachment of the myosin head to actin
the striation of a skeletal muscle cell are produced for teh most part by
arrangements of myofilaments
where are the binding sites found to which cross bridges attach during muscle contraction?
actin
the chemical that transmits a nerve stimulus to a muscle fiber is a
acetycholine
while the cell is in its resting potential
the inside of the cell is negative while the outside is positive
a contraction in which a muscle doesn't shorten but tension increases is called
isometric
once Ach binds to the sarcolemma
the Na gates open and the cell is depolarized
an inrease in a stimulus to a muscle cell will cause
recruitment of more molar units
Ca can be said to be a "trigger" for muscle contraction because it causes
binding sites on actin to be revealed
a sarcomere is best described as
a unit within a myofibril
myofibrils are composed primarily of
actin and myosin
a muscle cramp is likely due to a lack of
ATP
a motor unit includes
several muscle fibers and one motor neuron
the all or none response means
when a muscle fiber contracts, it contracts completely
Rig or MORtis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is
excessive ATP which prevents muscle contraction
recruitment of a small number of motor units are associated with a lot of the following except
power
holding up the corner of a heavy couch to vacuum under it involves
tetanus and isometric
if a muscle were in a state of full contraction and calcium stores were completely removed from all muscle cells in an instant, the
muscle would relax and its ATP levels would remain high and the muscle would return to its resting state even under continuous stimulation
which of the following would be associated with a skeletal muscle fascicle
perimysium
in comparing electron micrographs of a relaxed skeletal muscle and a fully contracted muscle fiber which would be seen only in the relaxed fiber
A bands and H zones
large white fibers
fast twitch
large white fibers
fast twitch
creates fast contractions but fatigues quickly
fast twitch
red fibers, smallest of the fiber types
slow twitch
contain abundant mitochondria and a rich blood supply with a medium power output
intermediate twitch
fatigue quickly
fast twitch
creates fast contraction and a fatigue resistant
intermediate contraction
largest fiber types
fast twitch
a sarcomere is the distance between 2 _______
z lines
the myosin filaments are located in the
a band
the thicker filaments are the _______ filaments
myosin
the ________ contains only the actin filaments
I band
actin or myosin containing structure
myofilament
extension of teh muscle connective tissue attaching a muscle to bone
tendon
plasma membrane of the muscle cell
sarcolemma
cylindrical organelle that has a banded appearance
myofibril
smallest portion of a muscle's contracting unit
sarcomere
cylindrical organelle that has a banded appearance
myofibril
in adults, blood cells are formed in
red bone marrow
the contracting layer of the heart is
myocardium
the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle is
tricuspid
blood enters left atrium of the heart through
pulmonary veins
deoxygenated blood enters the heart in
right atrium
the period of emptying ventricles of blood is
ventricular systole
parts of the conduction system include all except
coronary sinus
what depolarizes next after SA node?
AV node
condition associated with plaque buildup
atherosclerosis
P wave of normal electrocardiogram indicates
atrial depolarization
which wave corresponds with ventricular systole
QRS complex
which occurs soon after onset of ventricular systole?
closure of AV valves
opening of semilunar valves
pressure in ventricles increase
blood rushes into major arteries
normal heart sounds are associated with which of teh following activities
closure of heart valves
blood enters which of these vessels during ventricular systole
coronary arteries
the term for pain associated with defficient blood delivery to heart that may be caused by artery blockage or artery spasm
angina
blood cells that engulf bacteria during short term infections are called
neutrophils
blood leaves the heart via the
arteries
the myocardium receives its blood supply diretly from the
coronary arteries
an EKG provides direct information about valve impairment
false
the atria receive all the blood returnign to the heart (true/false)
true
blood within the bpulmonary veins return to the
left atrium
the initial stimulus for red blood cell formation is
decreasing O2 levels
organs responsible for the removal of dead RBC
liver and spleen
discharges blood into the systemic circuit
left ventricle
chambers that receive oxygenated blood
left atrium
chambers that receive deoxygenated blood
right atrium
discharges blood into the pulmonary circuit
right ventricle
which enzymes are associated iwth the digestion of carbs?
amylase
which enzymes are associated with the digestion of proteins?
pepsin
functions of the large intestines include all of the following except
absorption of lipids
the gall bladder
stores bile
the digestive juice produce containing enzymes capable of digesting all food stuff categories is
gastric
the salivary glands produce an enzyme that digests
starches
the structure within the small intestines that increases surface area and thus aid in absorption of food are called
villi, microvilli, picae circulares
which enzyme is important for the absorption of vitamin B12?
intrinsic phase
which phase of gastric secretion is a conditioned reflex?
cephalic phase
which of the following stimulates the secretin of gastric juice?
distension of stomach, aroma or sight of food, distension of small intestines
contraction of the stomach causes
mechanical digestion and propulsion
the liver
produces bile
insulin
lowers blood glucose levels
glycogen
raises blood glucose levels
signs of diabetes mellitus
excessive thirst, excessive urine production, excessive hunger
starch digestion begins in the mouth when __________ is secreted
salivary amylase
proteins food are largely acted on in the stomach by _________
pepsin
a nonenzyme substance that emulsifies fats
bile
an indigestible substance
cellulose
secreted by the pancreas
insulin
mixes food in the mouth and initiates swallowing
tongue
a food chute, has no digestive or absorption role
esophagus
organ in which starch digestion begins
mouth
organ responsible for the food digestion
small intestine
receives pancreatic juice and bile
duodenum
process by which the products of digestion pass throught the gastric intestinal tract into the blood
absorption
process of taking food into the digestive tract
ingestion
sequential waves of contraction and relaxation of teh muscular layer, propelling food through the digestive tract
peristalsis
process by which the products of digestion pass throught the gastric intestinal tract into the blood
absorption
chemical and mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed
digestion
elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus
defecation
primarily involved in water absorption and feces formation
colon
responsible for most food and water absorption
small intestine
projections of the intestinal mulcose that increasess the surface area
villae
folds of teh small intestine wall
plicae circulares
projections of the plasma membraneof a cell that increases the surface area
villae
folds of the small intestine wall
plicae cirulares
projections of teh plasma membrane of a cell that increases the cell's surface area
microvillae
volume changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to movement of gases to equalize pressure
true/false
true
Henry's law states that total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture
true/false
false
when diaphragm contracts, volume of thoracic cavity decreases
true/false
true
continuous changing and refreshing of air in sacs of lungs is called respiratory gas transport
true/false
false
normal quiet breathing is called tidal volume
true/false
true
the greater the concentration of a gas in a gas mixture, the greater its partial pressure
true/false
true
hyperbaric conditions occur when atmospheric pressure is increased
true/false
true
the process by which cells receive oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide is
internal respiration
pressure in bronchial tubes and alveoli is called
intrapulmonary pressure
which of the following determines direction of gas movement with lungs
partial pressure gradient
when the inspiratory muscles (diaphragm and intercostals) contract
size of thorax increases in diameter, size of thorax increases in length, pressure in thorax decreases
oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in lungs and through cell membranes by
diffusion
during inspiration, pressure in alveoli
decreases
oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in lungs and through cell membranes by
diffusion
tidal volume is air that is
exchanged during normal breathing
prior to inspiration, thoracic volume __________ and intrapulmonary pressure _____________
increases, decreases
intrapulmonary pressure is always________ intrapleural pressure
greater than
amount of air that enters lungs during normal inspiration is
tidal volume
amount of air you can still inhale after normal amount is
internal respiratory volume
the largest amount of air an individual can move in and out of lungs is
vital capacity
the largest amount of air an individual can move in and out of lungs is
vital capacity
which of the following has highest partial pressure of carbon doxide?
tissue cells
compared with inhaled air, exhaled air contains less
oxygen
compared with inhaled air, exhaled air contains less
oxygen
pressure in thorax decreases as
lungs inflate
continuous cycle of inspiration and expiration is known as
pulmonary ventilation
blood flowing from heart to capillaries around each alveolus contains large amounts of
carbon dioxide
repiration refers to
transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood, movement of air in and out of lungs, gas exchange betewen blood and air in lungs
what does the brain monitor for regulationof breathing?
levels of carbon dioxide
which has the highest partial pressure of oxygen?
inspired air or expired air
inspired air
which has the highest partial pressure of oxygen?
tissues or alveoli of lungs
alveoli
which has the highest partial pressure of oxygen?
blood in systemic arteries, blood in systemic veins
blood in systemic arteries
which has the highest partial pressure of carbon dioxide?
inspired air/expired air
expired air
which has the highest partial pressure of carbon dioxide?
tissues/alveoli of lungs
tissues
which has the highest partial pressure of carbon dioxide?
blood in systemic arteries/blood in systemic veins
blood in systemic veins