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223 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a tissue
a group of cells that work together
What is an organ
a group of tissues that work together
what is a system
a group of organs that work together
what are the characteristics of life
movement, responsiveness, food, water, and heat
anabolic reaction
builds up molecules
what happens in positive feedback
the reaction is increased to fix the homeostasis
what happens in negative feedback
an opposite reaciton is engaged to fix homeostasis
waht is a cataoblic reactions
breaks down large molecukes
your thumb is ___ to your finger
proximal
your hand is __ to your elbow
distal
what organs are in the upper right quadrant?
spleen, intestines, part of liver
what organs are in the upper left quadrant?
intestines, liver, gallbladder, stomach
what organs are in the lower right quadrant
intestines, rectum, anus, urinary bladder, urethra
what cavity are your lungs in
pleural thoracic
what is coronal cut
fivides person into front/back halves
transverse cut
divides peron into top/bottom halves
midsaggital
along midline, R/L halves
what is the hob of the integumentary system?
tissue protection, temperature regulation
what is the job og the endocrine system
control hormones
what is the job of the lymphatic system?
bring extracellular fluid back to bloodstream
what is the job of urinary system
get rid of excess fluids and other bad things
what are trace elements in your body?
Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Fluorine (F) Iodine (I), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), and Zinc (zn)
what are the major elements in body
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorous, potassium, sulfur, chlorine, soduim, magnesium
how many electrons does carbon have in its outer shell
4
how many electrons does nitrogen have in its valence shell
5
how many electrons does oxygen have in its outer shell
6
what is the atomic number of oxygen
8
atomic number of nitrogen
7
atomic number of hydrogen
1
atomic number of carbon
6
what happens in an ionic bond
one atom gives an electron to another atom, making 2 oppositely charged ions that attract eachother
what happens in covalent bond
2 atoms share electrons
what attrubute does water have that accounts for its unique characteristics
adhesion (sticks to other things) cohesion (sticks to itself)
how many atoms of hydrogen does glucose have
12
how many atoms of oxygen does glucose have
6
how many atoms of carbon does glucose have
6
when you hadd hydrogen ions to a solution, ohat happens to the pH
it drops, making solution more acidic
what is an inorganic compound we need to live
water, CO2
what are some examples of carbohydrates
glucose, sucrose, glycogen, starch
what are some examples of lipids
fats, oils, phospholipid membranes
waht are some examples of protein
enzymes or muscle tissue
examples of nucleic acids
DNA, RNA
momomers of carbohydrates
monosaccharides
what are the monomers of nucleic acids
nucleotides
what form of energy does you cells use
ATP
what happens in an ionic bond
one atom gives an electron to another atom, making 2 oppositely charged ions that attract eachother
what happens in covalent bond
2 atoms share electrons
what attrubute does water have that accounts for its unique characteristics
adhesion (sticks to other things) cohesion (sticks to itself)
how many atoms of hydrogen does glucose have
12
how many atoms of oxygen does glucose have
6
how many atoms of carbon does glucose have
6
when you hadd hydrogen ions to a solution, ohat happens to the pH
it drops, making solution more acidic
what is an inorganic compound we need to live
water, CO2
what are some examples of carbohydrates
glucose, sucrose, glycogen, starch
what are some examples of lipids
fats, oils, phospholipid membranes
waht are some examples of protein
enzymes or muscle tissue
examples of nucleic acids
DNA, RNA
momomers of carbohydrates
monosaccharides
what are the monomers of nucleic acids
nucleotides
what form of energy does you cells use
ATP
what can help reactions take place while not being affected by the reaction
enzymes
in a cell membrane, what parts of your phospholipids are facing out
the heads
what are the 3 steps of cellular respiration
glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation
what is the only molecule your cells can use to extract energy
ATP
what is the job of golgi apparatus
package protiens and stuff to be exported from the cell
what is the job of the ribosome
to make proteins from amino acids
what is the job of the rough ER
make and transport proteins for export
what is the job of a lysosome
break down excess organic substances in cell
what is the job of a peroxisome
make and break down hydrogen peroxide
what is the job of a mitochondion
cellular respiration
what is the job of the centrosome
seperate copied chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis
what is the job of the smooth ER
transport proteins through cell
what happens when a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution
water rushes out of cell
what happens when a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution
water rushes into cell
what heppens wehn a cell is placed in an isotonic solution
no water goes in or out. cell doesnt inflate or deflate
a human cell prefers to be placed in what kind of solution
isotonic
what id facilitated diffusion
moving of particles across cell membrane along concentration gradient with the help of a protein
what is active transport
moving stuff across cell membrane against gradient with help of protein
what is diffusion
moving stuff across cell membrane against gradient with no protein help
what phase of the cell cycle is DNA copied
S phase of prophase
what happens during metaphase
chromosomes line up on cell midline
what happens during anamphase
chromosomes pull apart
what happens during prophase
normal cell activities, DNA copied
what is the end result of meiosis
4 haploid cells
what is the end result of mitosis
2 identical diploid cells
what is meiosis in females called
OO genesis
what is transcription
converting DNA to mRNA
what is translation
converting information on mRNA into proteins
what does simple squamous epithelial tissue look like
1 layer of flat cells
what does simple cuboidal tissue look like
1 layer of cube shaped cells
what does simple columnar tissue look like
1 layer of column shaped cells
what does skeletal muscle tissue look like
striated multinucleated
what does cardiac muscle tissue look like
striated single nuclei in cells
what does smooth muscle tussie look like
no striations, single nuclei
what does a neuron look like
a long thin cell with projections at either end
what kind of tussie is casually referred to as a "fat"
adipose tissue
what makes bones hard
calcium
what kind of tissue is present in the bladder
transitional epithelium
what kind of connective tissue is able to go through phagocytosis
white blood cells
what is the outermost layer of the skin
stratum corneum
what chemical in your skin makes you tan
melanin
what are the functions of the skeletal system
body support, blood cell production
where does growth of long bones occur
at the epiphyseal disks
what kind of bone is the vertebrae
irregular
what are the characteristics of long bones
longer than the area of the cross section, expanded ends
what are the characteristics of irregular bones
anything that doesn't fit into the other catagories
what are the characteristics of short bones
about as wide as they are long
what are the characteristics of the etc. bones
round-like the patella in knee, flat like in skull bones
what is the hole of the bone your blood enters to give the bone nutrients
nutrient foramen
what is the joint between the two bones of the skull
suture
what motion would be created by the raising of sholders
elevation
what is the motion plantar flexion
pointing your toe
what is the motion extension
extending the joing to its longes point
what is the motion supination
turning your palms upward
what is the motion pronation
turning palms down
what is the function of the muscular system
movement heat production
what is excitability
ability to be exited (stimulated) into doing an action by a stimulus
what is extensibility
ability to be extended
what is contractility
ability to contract
what is elasticity
ability to stretch
what kind of muscle is founf in the intestinal system
smooth muscle
what are the 2 protiens that cause your muscle cells to contract
actin and myosin
what gives your muscles more dexterity
more motor units
what is the prime mover
the muscle that is maily responisble for a motion, if more than 1 muscle is being used
what are synergistic muscles
muscles that work together
what are antagonistic muscles
muscles that work opposite eachothet
what kind of lever is in your neck
3rd class
what is your bum muscle called
gluteus mazimus
what muscle is used to close the eye
orbicularis oculi
what muscle is used to scowl
corrugator
what muscle is casually referred to as the 6 pack
rectus abdominis
what are the 4 quad muscles
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermeduis
what is your calf muscle called
gastrocnemius
which part of the neuron recieves the message
dendrites
what is a bipolar neuron
a neuron with 2 projections form the cell body (soma): 1 axon and 1 dendrite
what is a unipolar neuron
soma has 1 projection that has both axon and dendrite in it
what is a multipolar neuron
more than one dendrite, 1 axon
what cells from the myelin sheath around the axon
schwann cells
what is the charge of a neuron at rest
70 millivolts
what does the all or nothing response of a neuron mean
it either sends the signal, or it doesn't
what does action potential mean
the electrical charge sequenct when a neuron is stimulated
what does salutatory conduction mean
type of nervous impulse that seems to jump between neurons
what will cause a neuron to fire
a stimulus/ neurotransmitter
what is an IPSP
Na+ (sodium ions) diffuse out of a neuron
what is EPSP
Na+ (sodium ions) duffuse into neuron
what are the neurons in the brain and spinal chord called
interneurons
what is a knee jerk reflex
pressure is applied to the nerve which sends a signal to the spinal chord, which returns a signal without going to brain to move muscle
what is a simple reflex
sensory receptor activated, signal goes to/from spinal chord w/o going to brain. (when you touch a hot stove and your arm retracts)
what nerve is responsible for smell
olfactory
what nerve is responsible for sight
optical
what are the 3 layers covering the brain
pia mater, arachnnoid mater, sura mater
what is the color of a myelinated nerve
white
what is the color of an unmyelinated nerve
gray
where is the parietal love
back top og brain
where is the temporal lobe
side bottom of the brain
where is teh occipital lobe
very back of brain
where is teh frontal lobe
front behind forehead
what allows communication between the two halves of your brain
corpus allosum
what part of the brain controls your heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure
medulla oblongata
how does teh left lung differ from the right
L lung has 2 lobes, R has 3 because heart points toward left side of body
what keeps the laveoli of the lungs open
air pressure within the alveoli
what happens when your diaphragm contracts
you inhale
what heppens when your diaphram relaxes
you exhale
what is the vital capacity
max possible exhalation after deepest inhilation possible
what is tidal volume
volume of air per normal, relaxed breath
what is inspiratory reserve
max possible forced inhalation after tidal volume
what is complicance
cooperation with other body systems
what vessels carry blood away from the heart
arteries
what vessels carry blood to the heart
veins
what chamber of ther heart pumps blood into the aorta
L. ventricle
what chamber of the heart pumps blood into the pulmonary arteries
R. Ventricle
what vessels take blood to the heart from the lungs
pulmonary veins
what vessels supply the heart with blood
coronary arteries
what is the major artery that goes up the neck
carotid artery
what is they name of the artery on the thumb side of your forearm
radial artery
what is teh name of the artery on the pinky side of your forearm
ulnar artery
what is hydrostatic pressure
pressure exerted by fluids in blood vessels
what is osmotic pressure
pressure needed to stop osmosis
what are the components of blood
red and white blood cells, plasma
what kind of blood can a person with O blood take
O bloid
what kind of blood can a person with A blood take
A or O blood
What kind of blood can a person with B blood take
B or O blood
what kind of blood can a person with AB blood take
A, B, AB, or O blood
what kind of antibodies are in O blood
none
what kind of antibodies are in A blood
b
what kind of antibodies are in B blood
a
what kind of antibodies are in AB blood
none
where does inplantation of the zygote occur
uterus wall, at the end of the first week of pregnancy
what develops from the endoderm layer
digestive and respiratory tract lining, urinary bladder lining and urethra
what develops from the ectoderm layer
nervous system, integumentary system, lining of mouth and anus
what develops from the mesoderm layer
muscle, bones, blood vessels, connective tissues, internal reproductive organs
what is the hole that all newborns have between their 2 atria called
foramen ovale
how many lunar months is a woman pregnant for
10
what is the process of growing old called
senesence
where are photoreceptors found
in the retina of the eye
what is the gland that secretes its chemical into the blood stream
endocrine gland
what hormone that removes sugar from the blood is by the pancreas
insulin
what is the job of TSH
stimulates thyroid gland to release hormones
what is the job of insulin
remove glucose form blood
what is the job of glucagons
tell liver to break down glycogen into glucose to add to the blood
what kind of antibodies are in B blood
a
what kind of antibodies are in AB blood
none
where does inplantation of the zygote occur
uterus wall, at the end of the first week of pregnancy
what develops from the endoderm layer
digestive and respiratory tract lining, urinary bladder lining and urethra
what develops from the ectoderm layer
nervous system, integumentary system, lining of mouth and anus
what develops from the mesoderm layer
muscle, bones, blood vessels, connective tissues, internal reproductive organs
what is the hole that all newborns have between their 2 atria called
foramen ovale
how many lunar months is a woman pregnant for
10
what is the process of growing old called
senesence
where are photoreceptors found
in the retina of the eye
what is the gland that secretes its chemical into the blood stream
endocrine gland
what hormone that removes sugar from the blood is by the pancreas
insulin
what is the job of TSH
stimulates thyroid gland to release hormones
what is the job of insulin
remove glucose form blood
what is the job of glucagons
tell liver to break down glycogen into glucose to add to the blood
what is the job of glucagons
tell liver to break down glycogen into glucose to add to the blood
what is the job of testosterone
mature male reproductive organs
what is the job of estrogen
mature female reproductive organs
what is the job of ADH
causes kidney nephrons to retain water
what is the name of the master gland
pituitary gland
what is an acute pain
immediate pain with a short duration
what is a chronic pain
continuous pain over a long period of time, like 2 or 3 months
what is the function of the cochlea
sense of hearing