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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
• List the bones associated with the axial and appendicular skeleton.
Axial- Skull, Vertebral Column, and Rib cage
Appendicular- Pectoral & Pelvic Girdle, arm, and leg.
• Describe the location and function of the paranasal sinuses
Lightens skull, Voice resonance, Mucus warms and humidifies air.
Frontal- forehead, Ethmoidial-behind eyes, Sphenoid- behind ethmoidal, and Maxillary-sides of nose
• Describe the location and function of the hyoid bone.
Adam's apple area./moveable base for tongue Attachment pts for neck muscles that raise and lower larynx during swallowing and speech
• List the type of vertebrae and know the number of each type of vertebrae
Vertebral Column (26 irregular bones)
Cervical verbebrae 7
Thoracic 12
Lumbar 5
Sacrum (5 fused vetebrae)
Coccyx (4 fused)
• Describe the primary and secondary curvatures of the spine.
Primary- thoracic (convex) and sacral (convex)




Secondary- cervical (concave) and lumbar
(Concave)
• Describe scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis.
Scoliosis- abnormal curvature that occurs most often in thoracic
Kyphosis (hunchback)- dorsally exaggerated throacic curvature
Lordosis (Swayback)- accentuated lumbar curvature
• Know the parts of an intervertebral disc and describe a herniated disc.
Nucleus Pulposus of disc- gives disc elasticity and compressiblity

Anulus Fibrosus- made of fibrocartilage


Heriated discs- puts pressure on nerve root via compressed annulus fibrosus
• List and know the number of each type of rib.
Ribs (12 Pair)- 7 true, 3 false, and 2 floating
• Compare and contrast the three types of cartilage tissues.
Hyaline- structure Nose
Articular Cartilage-lines end of bones
Costal Cartilage
Larynx
Trachea

Elastic Cartilage- bending
Ear
Epiglottis
Fibrocartilage- compression Intervertebral Disc
Meniscus of knee
• List the functions of the skeletal system
Support-bony framework
Prtoection- brain, spinal cord, vital organs in thorax
Movement- skeletal muscles
Minreal storage- calcium and phosphate, continuous deposit and withdrawl
Blood cell formation-hematopoiesis
Red bone marrow
Occurs in marrow cavities of some bones

Triglyceride storage- stores energy in fat
• Know the parts and be able to label the structure of a long bone
Proximal & Distal Epiphysis, Diaphysis, Articular cartilage, Epiphysial plate, periosteum, medullar cavity, spongy and compact bone, yellow bone marrow, perforating sharkeys fibers
• Describe the functions of osteocyte, osteoblast, and osteoclast.
Osteoblasts- bone builders
Then turns into osteocytes- help maintain the matrix

Osteoclasts- bone breaks down bone matrix, so blasts don’t keep building and building, in lacuna
• Describe the composition of bone
Organic Components (35%)
Osteoid-organic part of matrix
Collagen Fibers
Responsible for flexibility and great tensile strength.

Inorganic Components (65%)
Consists mainly of mineral salts, calcium phosphates
* tiny needle-like crystals in or around collagen fibers
Responsible for hardness and resist compression
• List the location of hematopoietic tissue in children and adults.
Newborns
Red Marrow in medullary cavity and in all spongy bone.

Adults
Red Marrow located in cavities in of spongy bone due to long medullary cavities containing the yellow marrow now.
• Be able to define and describe the process of intramembranous and endochondral ossification
Intramembranous-Bone develop from a fibrous membrane
Formation of most bones of the skull and clavicles

1. Ossification center appears
2. Osteoid is secreted and calcifies
3.Woven bone and periosteum form
4.Red Marrow appears and Lamellar bone replaces woven

Endochondral- during pregnancy
1.Bone collar forms
2.Cavitation of hyaline cartilage
3.Spongy bone forms and periosteal bud invades
4.Medullar cavity forms
5.Ossification completes and hyaline remains only in articular cartilage and epiphysal plate.
• Define and describe the types of bone growth.
Interstitial growth – (Figure 6-10)
Growth in length of long bones at
Epiphyseal plate
Appositional Growth – growth in thickness of long bones, by stress
• Describe bone remodeling and how this process is regulated through hormones and mechanical stress.
Hormonal control determines IF and WHEN bone remodeling occurs while the mechanical stresses determined WHERE remodeling occurs. Calcium levels fall causing parathyroid to release PTH, which triggers osteoclasts to degrade bone matric releasing calcium and restoring homeostasis.

Long bones are thickness midway along the diaphysis where the bending stresses are the greatest
Large bony projections occur where heavy muscles attachFetal bones are featureless Bones of bedridden persons atrophy (wethered)
• Be able to classify bone fractures
By position of bones after the fracture
Displaced- the ends no longer line up, surgery
Non-displaced-ends line up

By completeness of Bone Break
Complete- all the way through the shaft
Incomplete- not all the way

By orientation of Bone Break
Linear- up and down, vertical
Transverse-diagonal

By whether Bone penetrates Skin
Compound (Open)
Simple (Closed)
• Describe the most common bone fractures.
Comminuted- 3 or more pieces, usually elderly
Compression- crushed, vertebral
Spiral- twisting, from child abuse
Epiphyseal-fracture in growth plate,
Depressed- pushed in, usually in skull
Greenstick- not broken all the way through(similar to breaking a twig)
• Describe the process of bone fracture repair.
1. Hematoma forms.
2. Fibrocartilage callus forms
3. Bony callus forms.
4. Bone remodeling.
• Define osteomalacia, rickets and osteoporosis and describe the causes, treatments and preventions for each disorder.
Osteomalacia= (“Soft Bones”)
Rickets- group diseases characterized by softening of the bones due to lack of Vit. D childhood disease analogous to osteomalacia

Osteoporosis- Refers to group of disease in which bone resorption outpaces bone production
Causes for women-Insufficient exercise to stress bones,Diet poor in calcium and protein,Insufficient intake of Vit K,Smoking which decreases estrogen levels
Treatment-Suppliment of Vit D and calcium,Getting the calcium and Vit D in your body at younger age,Stop smoking or never start,Drink fluoridated water- hardens bones and teeth,Decrease intake of carbonated beverages- leeches minerals from bones,Wt. bearing exercise.
• Be able to classify joints structurally and functionally and be able to give examples of each type of joint.
Functional Classification-Based on amount of movement allowed at the joint.
1.Synarthroses-immovable,Skull
2.Anphiarthroses-slight moveable,pubic symphysis, interverbral disc
3.Diarthroses- freely movable,-predominart in appendicualr sklelton

Structural Classification-Based on type of tissue binding bones together and whether joint cavity is present
1.Fibrous Joint- no movement,bones joined by fibrous tissue,No join cavity,Most are synarthrotic
2.Cartilaginous Joints- limited movement,joined by cartilage,No join cavity
3.Synovial Joints-Articulating bones separated by a fluid containing joint cavity,All are diarthrotic
• Be able to label a general synovial joint.
Joint Cavity
Articular Cartilage
Articular Capsule
a. Fibrous capsule– outer layer continuous with periosteum
b. Synovial Membrane – inner layer; made of loose connective tissue

Synovial Fluid
- Decrease friction
- Has phagocyte cells

Reinforcing Ligaments
• Define and describe the function of bursae and tendon sheaths.
Bursae
-Flatten sacs containg synovial fluid located in areas where muscles, bones, tendons, and ligaments rub
-function to reduce friction

2. Tendon Sheath
Elongated bursa that wraps around tendon
• List and explain the structures that stabilize joints.
1. Articular surfaces- how deeply they articulate
2. Ligaments- like slinky(once stretched never same again)
3. Muscule tones- amount of contratily reactivity in muscles

- Muscles tones that cross the joints are the most important stabilizing factor
• Define and give examples of each type of synovial joint.
Plane- Flat Surfaces, Intercarpel
Hinge-Convex bone fits into trough of another, Radius&Ulna
Pivot-Rounded/conical end protrudes into a ring of bone. Radio/Ulnar joint
Condyloid-Oval bone fits into concavity of another bone, metacarpel&phalange
Saddle-Both bones have a concave and convex surface, carpel&metacarpel of thumb
. Ball and Socket-Spherical head of bone into socket of another. Femur & acetabulum
• Define and demonstrate the actions allowed by each type of synovial joint.
Plane-Gliding
Hinge-Extension/Flexion
Pivot-Rotation
Condyloid- Angular Movements
Saddle-Opposition
Ball and Socket- Multiaxial


Gliding Movements-Flat articulating surfaces slip over one another

Angular Movements
Flexion – bending movement that decrease angle of joint
Extension – bending movement that increases angle of joint
Hyperextension – bending neck or waist beyond the upright position
Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion of Foot
Dorsiflexion – bending foot upward
Plantar Flexion – pointing toe down
Abduction – moving limbs away from mid-line
Adduction – moving limbs toward body mid-line
Circumduction - moving a limb in a cone shape in space- shoulder,hip

Rotation – turning a bone around on its own axis

Supination vs. Pronation-Movements of radius around ulna,“Soup-ination” = palm toward sky
Inversion vs. Eversion-Special movements of foot
Protraction vs. Retraction-Jaw forward and back
Elevation vs. Depression
a. Elevation – lifting body part superiorly
b. Depression – moving elevated body part inferiorly
Opposition-Saddle joint allows opposition of thumb
• Define and describe the most common sport knee injuries
Collateral Ligaments-usceptible to lateral blows/ happen first usually
Cruciate Ligaments- rotation
Cartilage (menisci)- torn
• Be able to list/tendons that reinforce the shoulder joint.
Tendon of biceps brachii muscle

Tendon of subscapularis muscle
• Be able to list the muscles that make up the rotator cuff.
SITS
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Subscapularis
• Compare and contrast sprain, cartilage tear and dislocation
Sprain- reinforcing ligaments stretched or torn


Cartilage Injuries- Tearing of menisci of knee is
common


Dislocations- Bones forced out of joints
• Compare and contrast the different types of arthritis
Acute arthritis: often bacterial treated with antibotics

CHRONIC ARTHRITIS-Osteoarthritis: wear and tear ( not inflammatory) Normal joint use causes breakdown of articular cartilage

Rheumatoid Arthritis-Autoimmune disease; inflammatory
Onset in midlife; more common in women Over time, scar tissue forms and joins bones together

Gouty Arthritis-Uric acid crystals deposited into joints