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344 Cards in this Set

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Bone Tissue: Components
cells & intercellular substance
Bone Tissue: Cells
osteoblast & osteocyte
osteoblast
immature cell; goes thru developmental process
osteocyte
mature cells; production of intercellular sub isolates osteocytes from one another in lacunae
Bone Tissue: intercellular substance
fibers & matrix
fibers
collagen fibers suspended in matrix outside of cells
matrix
1) organic matrix/osteoid 2)inorganic matrix
organic matrix
made of chemicals- proteoglycans & glycoproteins; soft until crystals added
inorganic matrix
composed of chemicals-hydroxyapatite crystals made of calcium phosphate & calcium hydroxide; crystals attach to collagen fibers hardening the matrix
Structural Types of Bone
1) spongy/cancellous/trabecular bone 2) compact/cortical bone
spongy/cancellous/trabecular bone
lamellae in layers; 4/> layers; layers straight & curved ... form trabeculae
trabeculae
create spaces w/in cancellous bone w/ red bone marrow in spaces
compact/cortical bone
long bones of our body; lamellae present concentric circles; gives strength to bone (makes hard, X break easy)
Microscopic structure of Compact Bone
1)haversion canal 2) lamellae 3) lacunae containing osteocytes 4) cannaliculi 5) volkmans canal 6)interstitial lamellae 7) outer circumferential lamellae 8) inner cir. lamellae
haversion canal
contains 3 elements: 1) bv's 2)lymph vessels 3)nerve fiber that supply all osteocytes w/ nutrition
lamellae
present in concentric circles or hard bony matrix; alternate w/ rings of lacunae containing osteocytes
lacunae containing osteocytes
alternate w/ lamellae w/ haversion canal in middle
cannaliculi
fine canals; contain ECF (derived from hav. canal, derived from capillary w/in it); have to cross lamellae & connect lacunae to one another (1st to hav canal)
diffusion of nutrients
thru cannaliculi from haversion canal to lacunae
diffusion of waste
thru osteocytes to haversion canal
volkmans canal
connects haversion canals together (horizontal); begin @ outer surface of bone & extend inward to hard bony tissue; transmit bv's from outer surface to interior
interstitial lamellae
found in b/w osteons (filling spaces b/w osteons in abnormal shape)
outer circumferential lamellae
found @ outer surface of bone & around peremeter of long bone
inner circumferential lamellae
found around bone marrow cavity of long bone; circular
Classification of Bone
(based on shape) 1)long bone 2)short bones 3)flat bones 4)irregular bones 5)sesamoid bones
Long Bones
1)diaphysis 2)epiphysis 3)periosteum 4)endosteum
diaphysis
shaft; hollow cylinder; hollow for bone marrow cavity; 1)walls 2)bone marrow cavity
walls of diaphysis
made mostly of compact bone; thin layer of cancellous bone next to bone marrow cavity
bone marrow cavity/medullary cavity of diaphysis
in young bones- contains red bone marrow & in elder bones- contains yellow bone marrow from fat deposition
epiphysis
extremeties of long bones; rounded & expanded; articulate w/ another bone; no bone marrow cavity
4 features of epipysis
1)thin compact bone @ surface 2)cancellous bone internally 3)articulating cartilage (cart covering bone) 4)red bone marrow @ spaces of internal cancellous bone
periosteum
covers entire surface of long bone, except articulating cartilage; made of white fibrous conn tissue
4 features of periosteum
1)sharpeys fibers- collagenous; connect periosteum to bone tightly 2)bv's, lymph v's, nerve fibers directed to internal side of bone coming from periosteum 3)osteogenic inner layer 4)site for tendons/ligaments attachmt
osteogenic
contains osteoblasts that can produce new bone when needed
endosteum
conn tissue membrane; lines bone marrow cavity of diaphysis; delicate, but also osteogenic
short, flat, irregular bones
1)outer surface- thin compact bone; 2)internally- large region cancellous bone (w/ spaces filled w/ red bone marrow)
Development of Bone:
1)Intramembranous Bone 2) Intracartilagenous/Endochondral Bone 3)cont of long bones ossification 4) @ birth
@ birth, cranial bones have 2 unusual aspects
1)not connected 2)unossified regions of membrane @ some areas
fontanels
unossified region of membrane in cranium; 6
1)anterior/frontal/bregmatic fontanel
"soft spot"; located b/w frontal/parietal bones; 18-24 months for final ossification
2)posterior/occipital fontanel
b/w parietal/occipital bone; 1 yr for final ossification; sutures=membrane still
3)antero-lateral/sphenoidal fontanels (2)
b/w frontal/parietals/great wing of sphenoid/temporal bone; 2 mo for final ossification
4)postero-lateral/mastoidal fontanels (2)
b/w occipital/parietals/temporal bone; behind mastoid process; 2-3 mo for final ossification
functions of fontanels
loose connection allows for cranial bones to overlap @ child birth (accomodate to birth canal)
continuation of ossification in long bones
periosteum involvement; bone marrow cavity formation
periosteum involvement
makes more compact bone in diaphysis
periosteum
covers entire surface of long bone, except articulating cartilage; made of white fibrous conn tissue
4 features of periosteum
1)sharpeys fibers- collagenous; connect periosteum to bone tightly 2)bv's, lymph v's, nerve fibers directed to internal side of bone coming from periosteum 3)osteogenic inner layer 4)site for tendons/ligaments attachmt
osteogenic
contains osteoblasts that can produce new bone when needed
endosteum
conn tissue membrane; lines bone marrow cavity of diaphysis; delicate, but also osteogenic
short, flat, irregular bones
1)outer surface- thin compact bone; 2)internally- large region cancellous bone (w/ spaces filled w/ red bone marrow)
Development of Bone:
1)Intramembranous Bone 2) Intracartilagenous/Endochondral Bone 3)cont of long bones ossification 4) @ birth
@ birth, cranial bones have 2 unusual aspects
1)not connected 2)unossified regions of membrane @ some areas
fontanels
unossified region of membrane in cranium; 6
1)anterior/frontal/bregmatic fontanel
"soft spot"; located b/w frontal/parietal bones; 18-24 months for final ossification
2)posterior/occipital fontanel
b/w parietal/occipital bone; 1 yr for final ossification; sutures=membrane still
3)antero-lateral/sphenoidal fontanels (2)
b/w frontal/parietals/great wing of sphenoid/temporal bone; 2 mo for final ossification
4)postero-lateral/mastoidal fontanels (2)
b/w occipital/parietals/temporal bone; behind mastoid process; 2-3 mo for final ossification
functions of fontanels
loose connection allows for cranial bones to overlap @ child birth (accomodate to birth canal)
continuation of ossification in long bones
periosteum involvement; bone marrow cavity formation
periosteum involvement
makes more compact bone in diaphysis
bone marrow cavity formation
osteocytes breakdown cancellous bone @ interior of diaphysis-->creatig bone marrow cavity; red bone marrow remains
@ birth...
epiphyses are still almost entirely made of cartilage; diaphysis is bone
in epiphyses...
secondary ossification center forms; post partum dev of long bones
post partum dev of long bones
2 ossif center forms same as 1 except: 1)epiphyseal plate appears as layer of hyaline cartilage @ base of epiphysis & lies on cancellous bone of diaphysis-metaphysis; lacks bone marrow cavity in epip; hyaline cart of epip remains as the articular cart
growth of long bones in children/ado-->adults: types of growth
1)growth in length 2)growth in circumference
growth in length (intercartilagenous)
epiphyses grow away from diaphysis in opp. directions
site of long bone growth
epiphyseal plate/disc
4 steps of growth in length
1)cartilage next to metaphysis undergoes mitosis (aka adds cart to epiphysis moving it away from diap) 2)lower layer @ epiphyseal plate changes to bone-->calcified & dies-->replaced w/ cancellous bone 3)total length of diap increases 4)closure of epiphyseal plate
closure of epiphyseal plate
cartilage completely replaced by bone @ this point & becomes epiphyseal line (all bone); complete in all indiv by 25 (F 17-19, M 19-21)
growth in circumferenc (intramembranous)
growth in diameter of diaphysis; occurs in 2 locations: 1)@ outer surface of diaphysis 2) bone marrow cavity
growth @ outer surface of diaphysis
periosteum makes new bone @ outer surface of diap, increasing overall diameter of diap
growth of bone marrow cavity
1)osteoclasts break down bone @ border of cavity-->inc diameter of cavity 2)osteoblasts produce new bone @ border of cavity (less new bone prod than old bone removed)-->overall inc of diap & cavity diameter
factors affecting bone growth
1)hormones 2)vitamin A
hormones:
1)thyroxine 2)somatotrophic hormone/growth hormone 3)sex hormones- estrogen & testosterone
thryroxine (from thyroid gland)
stimulates growth in epiphyseal plate (inc diap in length)
lack of thyroxine prod post natal
abnormally slow growth in epiphyseal plate-->diap too short-->brain dev slowed
STH/GH (from anterior pituitary gland)
-->liver-->prod insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF1)-->stimulates growth in epip plate-->inc in diameter of diap
errors in GH prod
1)hypersecretion before closure 2)hyposecretion before closure
hypersecretion before closure
excess STH-->stimulates growth in long bone-->growth to over 8ft (tallest M in world 8'11")
hyposecretions before closure
too little STH secreted-->long bones X grow in length-->stunted growth ~3'-3'6"
sex hormones
both stimulate closure of long bones; estrogen works faster than testosterone in closure
Vit A
needed for maturation of cartilage in epiphyseal plate; lack of VitA prod unusual bone struc
maturation:
cells divide, cartilage cells calcified, die, replaced by bone
lack of VitA:
retards maturation process; long bones too short but circumference not affected & diameter normal (chode) ... X common in human pop
calcification of bone
depostion/addition of hydroxyapatite crystals to collagen fibers in bony matrix-->hardening matrix
calcification of bone: hormonal control
1)calcitonin 2)parathormone
calcitonin
from thyroid gland; inhibits osteoclastic activity in bones; favors osteoblastic activity (new bone prod calcified); level in blood controlled by Ca+ level in blood
parathormone
from parathyroid gland; stimualtes osteoclastic activity (break down bone); calcium salts removed from bone & appear in blood
calcitonin & parathormone work ...
antagonistically
calcification of bone: dietary factors
1)VitA excess 2)VitC deficiency 3)VitD 4)calcium & osteoporosis
VitA excess
too > stored in body->stimulates osteoclasts (break down bone)->removes Ca from bone(weakens bone)-->brittle bones!
VitC deficiency
vitC required for prod of collagen; def->prod of abnormal collagen->proper amt Ca in bone matrix X held->low levels of hydroxyapatite crystals-->soft bones!
VitD
vitD stimulates uptakes of Ca from int to blood helping regulate Ca ion conc in blood; Ca is deposited into bone tiss as hydroxyapatite crystals
VitD deficiency
lack of Ca absorbed int->bone has less Ca than normal-->soft bones!; children=rickets, adults=oseomalasia
calium/osteoporosis
common in F after menopause; lack of estrogen->decalcification of bones->bones weaker than normal->trabiculae thinner->bone fractures > easily endured
Bone fractures: types
1)incomplete 2)complete
incomplete bone fracture
fracture, but bone not seperated into seperate segments; > common in children- "greenstick frx"; in adults- "hairline frx"
complete bone fracture types:
1)simple frx 2)compound frx 3)depressed frx 4)comminuted frx 5)avulsion frx 6)impaction frx 7)pathological frx
complete: simple frx
bone frxd into @ least 2 major fragments; bone X rupture skin
complete: compound frx
fracture creates @ least 2 major fragments; bone pierces skin
complete: depressed frx
bone forced into soft tissue; ex-severe skull frx forced into brain, rib forced into lung
complete: comminuted frx
2 major fragments; b/w 2 major fragments, many small bone fragments
complete: avulsion frx
finger/toe ripped off; whole limb torn off; >commonly, section of tuberosity torn loose by muscular contrxtn; portion of bone removed w/ tendon
complete:impaction frx
long bones; portion of epiphysis driven into diaphysis; > common @ elbow
complete: pathological frx
something wrong w/ bone @ beginning; related to bone cancer or metastatic cancer where bone tissue weakened; minimun force leads to frx
healing of frx's:
1)reduction 2)natural healing process
frx healing: reduction
not part of recovery-must occur before tissue heals; broken bone realigned into normal position by 1)closed 2)open
reduction: closed
manipulated externally; no surgery
reduction: open
requires surgery with pins/plates to maintain normal position
frx healing: natural healing process
1)procallus formation 2)fibrocartilage callus formation 3)bony callus formation 4)elimination of ext callus & reformation of bone marrow cavity
natural healing process: procallus formation
1)hematoma formation (blood clot) 2)granulation tissue formation
hematoma formation
occurs b/w 2 spots: 1)b/w broken fragments 2)b/w periosteum & outer surface of bone
granulation tissue formation
1)fibroblasts invade hematoma & prod WFCT thruout hematoma 2)macrophages enter & destroy dying soft tiss 3)osteoclasts destroy microscopic dying fragments of bone 4)external callus is WFCT located under periosteum & above bone surface 5)internal callus is WFCT located b/w 2 major frags
natural healing process: fibrocartilage callus formation
1)fibroblasts->chondroblasts 2)chondroblasts making fibrocartilage replacing components in procallus (WFCT)
natural healing process: bony callus formation
1)osteoblasts come from bm & periosteum invade fibrocart callus, fibrocart calcified & dies 2)osteoblasts prod cancellous bone 3)compact bone prod @ periosteum
natural healing process: elim ext callus & reform bm cavity
*only in long bone; 1)osteoclasts destroy cancellous bony ext callus 2)clears out bm cavity of bone 3)periosteum prod compact bone @ surface ... & now norm
fxns of bone:
1)skeletal muscle attachmt 2)mechanical fxn 3)framework of support 4)protection 5)storage of Ca & PO4 6)hemopoiesis
fxns of bone: skeletal muscle attachmt
tendons of muscle attach to periosteum of bone
fxns of bone: mechanical fxn
creates leverage system in association with skeletal muscle, allowing for mvmt and ability to do work
fxns of bone: framework of support
for soft tissues other than skeletal muscle
fxns of bone: protection
forms cavities that contain body organs: cranial cavity-brain, spinal cav-spinal cord, thoracic cav-heart/lungs, pelvic cav-urinary bladder
fxns of bone: storage of CA & PO4
reservoir; 99% Ca in body is in bone (bone can be broken down & release CA, or can store it)
fxns of bone: hemopoeisis
formation of RBC, WBC, and blood platelets in red bm
structure of human skeleton:
1)axial skeleton 2)appendicular skeleton
axial skeleton:
1)skull 2)vertebrae 3)sacrum 4)coccyx 5)sternum 6)ribs
appendicular skeleton:
1)bones of arms & legs 2)clavicle 3)scapula 4)pelvic bones
skull
1)neurocranium/cranium: part of skull that encases brain 2)splanchnocranium: facial portion of skull
cranium:
1)frontal bone 2)parietal bones 3)temporal bones 4)sphenoid bone 5)ethmoid bone 6)occipital bone 7)sutures
cranium: frontal bone
makes up forehead; contributes to orbits; frontal sinuses
frontal sinuses
spaces b/w walls of bone; always lined by mucuous memb; located @ lower forehead region & some connect w/ nasal cav
cranium: parietal bones
form > of top of cranium & upper lateral portions of cranium
cranium: temporal bones
@ mid-lateral portion & base of cranium; composed of: 1)external auditory meatus 2)mastoid process 3)zygomatic process 4)styloid process 5)mandibular fossa 6)carotid canal 7)jugular foramen 8)petrous process 9)internal auditory meatus
external auditory meatus
opening to external ear canal (hollow tube beginning @ meatus, extending in, ends @ ear drum in middle ear
mastoid process
protrusion of bone; site of attchmt of musc that moves head->sternocleidomastoid; hollowed out w/ air cells internally
air cells:
mastoid sinuses: lined by mucuous memb; can contract infxn from middle ear: mastoiditis; can be transferred to meninges: meningitis
zygomatic process
forms part of zygomatic arch; site for masseter attchmt
styloid process
extends dwn from base of temp bone; indirectly connected to hyoid bone by special skeletal muscles
only bone that X articulate w/ another bone in body
hyoid bone
mandibular fossa
depression in base of temp bone; site of articulation w/ mandible
carotid canal
allows for passage of internal carotid artery from neck to brain (1 of 2 major bv's supplying brain w/ blood)
jugular foramen
alllows for passage of internal jugular vein from brain to neck
petrous process
important b/c houses 2 parts of ear: middle ear & internal ear
internal auditory meatus
w/in petrous process; allows for passage of auditory nerve fron inner ear where originates to brain
cranium: sphenoid bone
made of: 1)lesser wings 2)greater wings 3)body of sphenoid 4)pterygoid processes
lesser wings
contribute to floor of cranial cav; contain optic foramina-allow for passage of optic nerve from orbits to brain
greater wings
larger; contribute to lateral cranium, floor of cranium & contain 4 foramina
4 foramina of greater wings:
foramen spinosum, ovale, lacerum, rotundum; allow for passage of vessels & nerves from facial part of skull to brain
body of sphenoid
located b/w great wings; top depressed->sella turcica where pituitary gland located; hollow space->sphenoidal sinuses
pterygoid processes
4; giant plates of bone extending dwn off sphenoid; site for muscle attchmt involved w/ chewing or mastication
cranium: ethmoid bone
made of: 1)cribiform plate 2)crista galli 3)perpendicular plate 4)orbital plate 5)labyrinth portions
cribiform plate
contributes to floor of cranial cav; punctuated by many fine foramina->olfactory foramina allowing for passage of olfactory nerves from nasal cav to brain
crista galli
extends vertically up from crib plate; connects to meninges of brain (memb); stabilize ant part of brain
perpendicular plate
extends vertically down from crib plate into nasal cav; contributes to nasal septum-dividing nasal cav in half
orbital plate
contributes to medial portion of orbit; plate of bone w/ hollow air spaces in it->ethmoid sinuses
labyrinth portions
extensions of bone into nasal cav; 1)superior nasal conchae 2)medial nasal conchae
cranium: occipital bone
base of skull w/ minor contributions from temp bone; made of: 1)foramen magnum 2)occipital condyles
foramen magnum
largest foramen in skull; allows for passage of spinal cord from brain to the spinal canal of vert column
occipital condyles
@ either side of foramen magnum; where skull articulates w/ vert column- atlas in part.
cranium: sutures
synarthroses; immoveable joints; precisely fit together b/w bones w/ collagen fibers crossing suture making cxn b/w bone very tight
saggital suture
anterior-posterior orientation; seperates parietal bones
coronal suture
left-right orientation; seperates frontal from parietals
lambdoidal suture
oblique orientation; seperates occipital from parietals & temporals; contains wormian bones
squamous sutures
seperates parietals & temporals
cranium: abnormalities in dev
1)microcephaly 2)hydrocephalis
microcephaly
caused by craneostenosis->premature ossification of sutures fusing; diff degrees det if survive/X; still born- face portion normal, cranium too small
hydrocephalis
"water on the head"; spaces inside brain-ventricles filled w/ cerebrospinal fluid->brain & head enlarge; splanchnocran norm; neurocran too big
fix hydrocephalis:
put in VP shunt (ventriculo-peritoneal): system of tubing w/ valves in children; 1)tube in ventricle of brain w/ valve 2)tube passes from brain thru neck into peritoneal cav
splanchnocranium:
made of: 1)madible/maxilla 2)palatine bones 3)inferior nasal conchae 4)vomer 5)zygomatic bone 6)nasal bones 7)lacrimal bones 8)orbital cav 9)nasal cav 10)paranasal sinuses
splanchnocranium: mandible
lower jaw; made of 1)angle 2)body 3)alveolar border 4)ramus 5)coronoid proc 6)condyloid proc
angle of mandible
sperates body from ramus
body of mandible
"U"shaped; extends from angle to angle; supports alveolar border
alveolar border of mandible
collective tooth sockets
ramus of mandible
branchlike area connects body to coronoid proc & condyloid proc
coronoid proc of mandible
site of muscle attchmt of mandible; lies in front of condyloid proc
condyloid proc of mandible
supports mandibular condyle->articulates w/ temp bone @ mandibular fossa
only moveable joint in skull
mandible
splanchnocranium: maxilla
upper jaw; made of: 1)frontal proc 2)zygomatic proc 3)alveolar proc 4)lacrimal groove 5)palatine proc
frontal proc of maxilla
articulates w/ zygomatic bone
alveolar proc of maxilla
collective tooth sockets
lacrimal groove of maxilla
allows for passage of nasolacrimal duct passing from orbit into nasal can; conducts tear solution thru duct into cav; associated w/ frontal bone
palatine proc of maxilla
horizontal plate of bone forming anterior 2/3s of hard plate
splanchnocranium: palatine bones
septerate bones; "L"shaped; 1)horizontal plate-bottom of L; articulates w/ palatine proc & makes up post 1/3 of hard plate
splanchnocranium: inferior nasal conchae (2)
indiv bone; flattened, curved plate; connected to maxilla & projects into nasal cav
splanchnocranium: vomer
articulates w/ body of sphenoid; also articulates w/ palatine bones, palatine proc of max, perpendic plate of ethmoid; main feature->contributes to nasal septum
splanchnocranium: zygomatic bone
"cheek bone"; 1)frontal proc-art w/ frontal bone 2)maxillary proc-art w/ maxilla 3)temporal proc-art w/ zygo proc of temp
splanchnocranium:nasal bones
form "bridge of the nose"
splanchnocranium: lacrimal bone
located in orbit; adjacent to nasolacrimal duct
splanchnocranium: orbital cav & contents
eyes; orbital fat pads; skeletal muscles @ back of orbit- extrinsic muscles of the eye; lacrimal glands
splanchnocranium: nasal cavity
cavity surrounded by bone; located above oral cav; 1)4 bony boundaries 2)nasal septum
4 bony boundaries of nasal cav:
1)@ superior-cribiform plate of ethmoid 2)@superior-lateral-oribital plate of ethmoid 3)@lateral-maxillum 4)@ floor-palatine proc-maxilla-horizontal plate of palatine bone
nasal septum of nasal cav
made of 2 bony structures divided in 1/2; 1)perpendicular plate of ethmoid 2) vomer
splanchnocranium: paranasal sinuses (4)
spaces in bones; around & continuous w/ nasal cav; 1)frontal sinus-in frontal bone 2)ethmoidal sinus- in deial orbital region 3)sphenoidal sinus- behind eyes 4)maxillary sinus-hollowed out portion of max
characteristics of paranasal sinuses
lined by mucuous memb, continuous w/ nasal cav made w/ mucuous memb
clinical note of paranasal sinuses
infxn- sinusitis: mucuous memb expands->prevents drainage of mucus into sinus cav->builds pressure in sinus->pain (common cold, allergy)
hyoid bone
in neck, b/w mandible & top layer of larynx; connected by skeletal musc to styloid proc of temp bone
hyoid bone fxns:
associates w/ extrinsic muscles of the tongue & its mvmts
vertebral column: components
1)cervical vert assoc. w/ neck-7 2)thoracic vert assoc w/ thorax-12 3)lumbar vert assoc w/ small of back-5 4)sacrum 5)coccyx
vertebral column: fxns
1)support-head & trunk of body 2)protection-spinal cord in spinal cav 3)hemopoeisis
vertebral column: typical structure
1)body/centrum 2)neural/vertebral arch 3)spinous proc 4)transverse proc 5)superior/inferior articular proc
body/centra of vertebra
located on ant side when anatomical pos; supports neural arch
neural/vertebral arch of vertebra
composed of 2 pedicles & 2 laminae; creates vertebral foramen, collectively forming vertebral canal
pedicles
arise off centrum
laminae
extend from pedicles & fuse
spinous proc of vertebra
located post to neural arch; site of attchmt for muscles & ligaments
transverse proc of vertebra
lateral extension where pedicle & lamina fuse; site for musc & lig attchmt
superior articular proc of vertebra
superior ext; part of struc articulating facets; art w/ inf art proc of vert located above it
inferior articular proc of vertebra
possesses facets; art w/ sup proc of vert located below it
vertebral column: differences b/w vertebrae
1)atlas 2)axis 3)skull mvmt 4)other vert... 5)sacrum 6)coccyx
atlas
C1; no centrum; modified neural arch (2 arches-ant/post); transverse proc w/ transverse foramina; sup art. facets art w/ occipital condyles of skull
transverse foramina of C verts
allow brain to get 1/2 of blood supply thru vertebral arteries passing thru foramina on way to brain
axis
C2; body present but reduced size; ondontoid proc/dens present as sup ext art w/ ant arch of atlas; transverse foramina present
skull mvmts allowed by atlas/axis
ant/post mvmt(chest-back); lateral mvmt->atlas remains in anatomical position & only skull moves; rotation->atlas moves w/ skull about dens
other Cervical vert
lamina, spinous proc, etc
other Thoracic vert
2 uncommon char 1)transverse proc has facet on it where tubercle of rib art 2)demifacets on the body where head of rib art
other Lumbar vert
largest vert of vert column b/c have to support trunk of body; transv proc simple ext- no facets or foramina w/ fxn of muscle/lig attchmt
sacrum
made up of 5 fused vertebrae; posterior portion of pelves; triangular shape, curved bone; sacral promontory @ top art w/ L5; sacral canal centally located containing spinal nerves; sacral foramina opening into canal for spinal nerves to pass out; auricular surfaces art w/ 2 pelvic bones
coccyx
"tail bone"; made of 4 fused vert; art w/ inferior part of sacrum; no canal, foramina, or spinal nerves; fxn->site of muscle attchmt
intervetebral foramina
appear only in articulating vertebrae; pedicles have 2 notches (upper/lower, inf/sup); allows spinal nerves to exit vertebral canal
intervertebral discs
made of fibrocartilage; found b/w bodies of adj vert
fxn intervert discs
"shock absorbers" of direct forces up and down vertebral column
2 morphologies of intervert discs
1)nucleus pulposis-gel like @ center of disc 2)annulus fibrosis- collagen fibers; runs around nuc pulp
slipped/herniated disc
when 1)annulus fib damaged 2)nuc pulp displaced 3)pressure on spinal cord/nerve; great frequency w/ lumbar region; "sciatica" is pressure on sciatic nerve causing constant pain down leg
intervertebal elastic ligaments
ligamentum flavum; located in vertebral canal; interconnect laminae to ea other in vertical sense up/dwn vert column; made of elastic conn tiss
fxn intervert elastic lig
allow for slight mvmt of vertebrae b/w ea other
vertebral column: curvatures of the spine
primary curvatures: concave; secondary curvatures: convex
cervical curvature
secondary curv-toward anterior plane; dev's after birth; found @ head & neck muscles
thoracic curvature
primary curv-away from anterior plane; present @ birth & stays thruout life
lumbar curvature
secondary curv; dev after birth as child begins to walk; located @ leg muscles
sacral curvature
primary curvature
vertebral column: abnormalities
1)kyphosis 2)scoliosis 3)lordosis 4)spina bifida
kyphosis
"hunchback"; exaggerated thoracic curv (primary); due to nerve/muscle damage; can't hold vert column in anatomical position
scoliosis
abnormal lateral cuv; starts @ younger age; one shoulder & one hip higher than other; no single cause- tends to be genetic/poor posture
lordosis
"swayback/hollowback"; exaggerated lumbar curv (convex); related to muscle/nerve damage
spina bifida (abnormality X related to curv)
>common in lumbar region, some in cervical region; vertebral column incomplete @ local area
incomplete:
absence of spinous processes & associated laminae not fused--spinal cord not protected by bone
spina bifida: various forms
1)spina bifida occulata 2)spina bifida cystica
spina bifida occulata
not overt/readily apparent; minimal incompleteness; surgery can correct
spina bifida cystica
large, apparent fluid-filled sac appears in back region; 1)meningocoele 2)myelomeningocoele
meningocoele
only fluid present in spinal cord; nerves remain in normal position; surgical correction
myelomeningocoele
fluid filled sac @ lower portion of spinal cord; nerves present in sac; leads to paraplegia
thoracic cage:
1)sternum 2)costal cart 3)ribs 4)thoracic vert
thoracic cage: fxns
1)protection-organs in thoracic cav (heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, major bv's) 2)support-shoulder girdle (clavicle & scapula) 3)muscle attchmt-assoc w/ breathing mvmts (diaphragm, intercostals) 4)hemopoeisis
sternum
"breast bone"; located anteriorly & mid-saggitally; made of: 1)manubrium 2)angle 3)xiphoid process ...also, body
sternum: manubrium
most superior; art w/ 1st pair costal cart->1st rib pair
sternum: angle
connection b/w manubrium & body; art w/ 2nd pair costal cart->rib pair
sternum: xiphoid process
starts as hyaline cart & youth & converted to bone w/ age; attchmt site for some abdominal musc
clinical aspect of xiphoid proc
sternal puncture: sternum close to surface of skin; use needle to aquire bm to det blood cell d/o's
sternum: body
gladiolus; art w/ 2nd-10th pair ribs
ribs
1)head 2)neck 3)tubercle 4)angle 5)body/shaft
ribs: head
located posteriorly; art w/ demifacets of thor vert
ribs: tubercle
small, rounded protrusion; art w/ costal/transverse facets on thor vert from T1-10
ribs: angle
point of greatest curvature
ribs: body/shaft
begins @ tubercle; extends anteriorly, curves laterally, cont curving ant to art w/ sternum
ribs: articulations
art w/ sternum; 1)true ribs 1-7, ea has costal cart that connects to sternum directly 2)false ribs
false ribs:
1)vertebralchondral 8-10; indirect connection to sternum; ea has costal cart connecting to costal cart of 7; 2)vertebral/floating, no art w/ sternum @ all
ribs: intercostal spacs
spaces b/w adjacent ribs w/ intercostal muscles found in spaces that move ribs up/dwn rib cage
thigh
contains femur; 1)proximal epiphysis 2)diaphysis 3)distal epiphysis
thigh: proximal epiphysis
1)head-art w/ acetabulum & site of hemopoeisis 2)neck-constriction b/w head & 2 tubercles 3)greater/lesser trochanters-used for musc attchmt
thigh: diaphysis
shaft; linea aspera @ proximal side- line runs length & region where musc attch
thigh: distal epiphysis
1)lat/med epicondyles-site of msc attch 2)lat/med condyles-largest portion, art w/ lat/med condyles of tibia
knee joint
1)lat/med condyles of femur art w/ 2)lat/med condyles of tibia 3)patella
patella
encased in tendon of quadriceps femoris; art w/ femur; provides protxn to knee joint
leg
tibia; fibula
false ribs:
1)vertebralchondral 8-10; indirect connection to sternum; ea has costal cart connecting to costal cart of 7; 2)vertebral/floating, no art w/ sternum @ all
leg: tibia
1)prox epip-head, let/med condyle art w/ femur, tibial tuberosity 2)distal epip-main portion medial malleolus art w/ talus & rest portion art w/ distal fibula
ribs: intercostal spacs
spaces b/w adjacent ribs w/ intercostal muscles found in spaces that move ribs up/dwn rib cage
tibial tuberosity
connects tibia to patellar ligament; final site of attchmt for quad. femoris
thigh
contains femur; 1)proximal epiphysis 2)diaphysis 3)distal epiphysis
tibia= & fibula=
medial bone of leg; lateral bone of leg
thigh: proximal epiphysis
1)head-art w/ acetabulum & site of hemopoeisis 2)neck-constriction b/w head & 2 tubercles 3)greater/lesser trochanters-used for musc attchmt
leg: fibula
1)prox epip-styloid proc for musc attchmt, head art w/ lat condyle of tibia 2)distal epip-modified into lat malleolus art w/ talus; art w/ dist spip of tibia
thigh: diaphysis
shaft; linea aspera @ proximal side- line runs length & region where musc attch
ankle
tarsal bones-7; 1)talus, "ankle bone", art w/ lat/med malleolus 2)calcaneus, "heel bone", art w/ talus & 1st row tarsals, site of achilles tendon attchmt
thigh: distal epiphysis
1)lat/med epicondyles-site of msc attch 2)lat/med condyles-largest portion, art w/ lat/med condyles of tibia
knee joint
1)lat/med condyles of femur art w/ 2)lat/med condyles of tibia 3)patella
patella
encased in tendon of quadriceps femoris; art w/ femur; provides protxn to knee joint
false ribs:
1)vertebralchondral 8-10; indirect connection to sternum; ea has costal cart connecting to costal cart of 7; 2)vertebral/floating, no art w/ sternum @ all
ribs: intercostal spacs
spaces b/w adjacent ribs w/ intercostal muscles found in spaces that move ribs up/dwn rib cage
leg
tibia; fibula
thigh
contains femur; 1)proximal epiphysis 2)diaphysis 3)distal epiphysis
leg: tibia
1)prox epip-head, let/med condyle art w/ femur, tibial tuberosity 2)distal epip-main portion medial malleolus art w/ talus & rest portion art w/ distal fibula
thigh: proximal epiphysis
1)head-art w/ acetabulum & site of hemopoeisis 2)neck-constriction b/w head & 2 tubercles 3)greater/lesser trochanters-used for musc attchmt
thigh: diaphysis
shaft; linea aspera @ proximal side- line runs length & region where musc attch
tibial tuberosity
connects tibia to patellar ligament; final site of attchmt for quad. femoris
tibia= & fibula=
medial bone of leg; lateral bone of leg
thigh: distal epiphysis
1)lat/med epicondyles-site of msc attch 2)lat/med condyles-largest portion, art w/ lat/med condyles of tibia
leg: fibula
1)prox epip-styloid proc for musc attchmt, head art w/ lat condyle of tibia 2)distal epip-modified into lat malleolus art w/ talus; art w/ dist spip of tibia
knee joint
1)lat/med condyles of femur art w/ 2)lat/med condyles of tibia 3)patella
ankle
tarsal bones-7; 1)talus, "ankle bone", art w/ lat/med malleolus 2)calcaneus, "heel bone", art w/ talus & 1st row tarsals, site of achilles tendon attchmt
patella
encased in tendon of quadriceps femoris; art w/ femur; provides protxn to knee joint
leg
tibia; fibula
leg: tibia
1)prox epip-head, let/med condyle art w/ femur, tibial tuberosity 2)distal epip-main portion medial malleolus art w/ talus & rest portion art w/ distal fibula
tibial tuberosity
connects tibia to patellar ligament; final site of attchmt for quad. femoris
tibia= & fibula=
medial bone of leg; lateral bone of leg
leg: fibula
1)prox epip-styloid proc for musc attchmt, head art w/ lat condyle of tibia 2)distal epip-modified into lat malleolus art w/ talus; art w/ dist spip of tibia
ankle
tarsal bones-7; 1)talus, "ankle bone", art w/ lat/med malleolus 2)calcaneus, "heel bone", art w/ talus & 1st row tarsals, site of achilles tendon attchmt
foot
1)metatarsals 2)phalanges
foot: metatarsals
5; "sole of the foot", art w/ distal/2nd row tarsals & prox phalanges
foot: phalanges
1)big toe, prox/dist portions 2)small toes, prox/middle/distal portions; number I-V big->small
Arches of foot: type
1)medial longitudinal arch 2)lateral longitudinal arch 3)transverse arch
medial longitudinal arch
start @ calcaneus, moves forward, lies under 1-3 metatarsals
lateral longitudinal arch
starts @ calcaneus, moves forward, lies under 4-5 metataarsals
transverse arch
lateral, L->R; lies under distal row of tarsals
arches of foot: maintenance
1)tight ligaments connecting bones maintain arches 2)muscle tone exerts tension on bones of foot & this slight contrxn holds arch in place
arches of foot: fxns
1)spread body weight over entire expanse of foot bones when standing 2)provide "spring" to foot when walk/run; assist mobility
Joints/Articulations
where 2/> bones connect to one another, including the connecting tissues; 1)synarthroses 2)ampiarthroses 3)diarthroses 4)Bursae
Joints/Articulations: Synarthroses
immoveable joints; no cavity b/w bones @ joint; 1)sutures 2)syndesmoses 3)gomphosis
synarthroses: sutures
found in skull& pelvic bones; bones fused together thru dev; early on, short collagen fibers cross suture->replaced w/ bone in time
synarthroses: syndesmoses
bone articulations in leg (dist tibia/fibula); allows for very slight mvmt b/w bones
synarthroses: gomphosis
root of tooth connected to tooth socket in mandible/maxilla by collagen fibers
Joints/Articulations: Ampiarthroses
allows for slight mvmt; no cavity space b/w bones @ joint; 1)synchondroses 2)symphyses
foot
1)metatarsals 2)phalanges
foot: metatarsals
5; "sole of the foot", art w/ distal/2nd row tarsals & prox phalanges
foot: phalanges
1)big toe, prox/dist portions 2)small toes, prox/middle/distal portions; number I-V big->small
Arches of foot: type
1)medial longitudinal arch 2)lateral longitudinal arch 3)transverse arch
medial longitudinal arch
start @ calcaneus, moves forward, lies under 1-3 metatarsals
lateral longitudinal arch
starts @ calcaneus, moves forward, lies under 4-5 metataarsals
transverse arch
lateral, L->R; lies under distal row of tarsals
arches of foot: maintenance
1)tight ligaments connecting bones maintain arches 2)muscle tone exerts tension on bones of foot & this slight contrxn holds arch in place
arches of foot: fxns
1)spread body weight over entire expanse of foot bones when standing 2)provide "spring" to foot when walk/run; assist mobility
Joints/Articulations
where 2/> bones connect to one another, including the connecting tissues; 1)synarthroses 2)ampiarthroses 3)diarthroses 4)Bursae
Joints/Articulations: Synarthroses
immoveable joints; no cavity b/w bones @ joint; 1)sutures 2)syndesmoses 3)gomphosis
synarthroses: sutures
found in skull& pelvic bones; bones fused together thru dev; early on, short collagen fibers cross suture->replaced w/ bone in time
synarthroses: syndesmoses
bone articulations in leg (dist tibia/fibula); allows for very slight mvmt b/w bones
synarthroses: gomphosis
root of tooth connected to tooth socket in mandible/maxilla by collagen fibers
Joints/Articulations: Ampiarthroses
allows for slight mvmt; no cavity space b/w bones @ joint; 1)synchondroses 2)symphyses
Ampiarthroses: Synchondroses
presence of hyaline cart @ joint; 1)epiphyseal plate of long bones made of temorary cart (becomes bone w/ growth) 2)costal cart of rib cage made of permanent cart
Ampiarthroses: Symphyses
fibrocart present @ joint; alwys permanent; 1)pubic symphysis 2)intervertebral discs
Joints/Articulations: Diarthroses
freely moveable joints; joint cavity present
Diarthroses: locations
mostly arms & legs
Diarthroses: structure
1)articular capsule/joint capsule 2)articular cavity/joint cavity
articular capsule
found outside around joint; made of 2 layers tissue: 1)outer layer-WFCT & some elastic fibers; blends w/ periosteum of surrounding bones 2)inner layer- synovial memb
synovial membrane
thin layer of areolar & adipose tissue
articular cavity
space b/w atriculating bones; filled w/ synovial fluid secreted from synovial memb
synovial fluid
high conc of hyaluronic acid to lubricate articulating surfaces of bones & reduce friction @ joints
Diarthroses: Arthritis
inflammation of synovial memb; 1)osteoarthritis 2)rheumatoid arthritis
osteoarthritis
afflicts elderly; "wear & tear" over time @ joints causing art cart to break down & synovial memb inflammed; bone on bone contact; bone spurs arise
rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune disease-immune sys makes antibodies a/g synovial memb->memb inflammed->inc amts synovial fluid prod->swelling->pressure->pain
Joints/Articulations: Bursae
closed, fluid-filled sacs b/w skin/bone, musc/bone, lig/bone, tendons/bone
Bursae:structure
1)walls present in 2 layers (outer-WFCT, inner-synovial fluid) 2)space inside filled w/ synovial fluid
Bursae: Fxn
decrease friction b/w structures where ever located
Bursae: examples
1)prepatellar bursa-located b/w subcutaneous tiss in patella 2)subacromial bursa- located b/w acromion & shoulder girdle
Bursae: Bursitis
inflammation of synovial membrane w/in a bursa->prod fluid inc->swelling->pressure->pain