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154 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
fascia lata
a layer of fascia surrounding the thigh. It gets thicker laterally and thinner medially.
Illiotibial band (IT)
a conjoined tendon that runs laterally on the thigh down to the tibia. It is the connection point for the glutteus maximus and the tensor fascia lata.
3 compartments of thigh, actions, and innervations
1. Anterior (extends into lateral)- femoral innervation, extensors
2. Medial- obturator innervation, adductors
3. Posterior- flexors, siatic innervation
Rectus Femoral
O-Anterior Internal Illiac Spine
I-patella and tibial tuberocity (these two things connected by a patellar ligament, really a tendon but b/c it connects two bones it's called a ligament) Patella is a sesamoid bone b/c it sits in the quadracepts tendons.
A-extend knee and flex hip
N-
Vastus Laterallis
o- lateral lip of the linea aspera (a ridge on the posterior femur)
I- Patella
A- extend knee
N- Femoral
Vastus Mediallus
O- Medial lip of the linea aspera
I- Patella
A- extend knee
N- Femoral
Vastus Intermedius
O- Shaft of the femur
I- Tendon of the vastus medialus and latalus and the rectus femorus
A- extend knee
N- Femoral
Sartorius
Longest muscle of the body, crosses hip and knee
O- ASIS
I- medial portion of the tibia
A- flexes knee and hip
N- Femoral
Pectineus muscle
O- Pectineal Line of the pubis
I- Pectineal Line of the femus (indistinguishable ridge b/t the lesser trochanter and the linea aspera)
A- Flexes, Adducts, and medially rotates hip
N- FERMORAL (EXCEPTION!!!!)
Adductor longus muscle
O- body of the pubis
I- Medial Lip of the linea aspera
A- Flexes, adducts, and medially rotates hip
N- Obturator
Abbductor Brevus
deep to the abductor longus
O- body of pubis and internal ramus
I- linea aspera and the pectineal line of the femur
A- Flexes, Adducts, and laterally rotates hip
N- Obturator
Abductor magnus
big, upper and a lower part
O- Ischiopubic ramus and the ischio tuberocity
I- Linea Aspera and the Adductor Tubercle of the Medial Epicondyl of the Femur
A- Upper- Flexes and medially rotates hip and adducts it
Lower- extends, laterally rotates hip and adducts it
N- Upper- Obturator
Lower- Tibial portion of the siatic nerve
gracilias
extends on medial border of medial compartment
O- body of pubis
I- medial part of the tibia
A- flexes at knee and adducts hip
N- Obturator
Femoral Triangle
Bordered by the adductor longus, the sartorius, and the inguinal ligament...on top by fascia lata and the bottom by pectineus, adductor longus, and Illiosoas....the femoral artery, vein, and nerve come through it
Sartorial Canal
Deep to Sartorius Muscle,
Lateral border is the vastus medialus, medial border is the adductor longus and magnus and roof is the sartorius muscle..........the femoral artery and vein come through as well as the saphenous nerve (which is a cutaneus branch of the femoral nerve)
explain branches of the femoral artery
three brancehs...the profundafemoral, the lateral femoral circumflex, and the medial femoral circumflex
profunda feeds the posterior compartment of the thigh, the lateral feeds the anterior, and the medial feeds the medial compartment of the thigh blood.
General about Cutaneus region
Supralateral glut.....best place to gie a shot b/c no vessels.........cutaneus inneravation by T12 and S1-3
What goes through Greater and Lesser Sciatic notches
Greater- Piraformus muscle, pudendal nerve, and sciatic nerve

Lesser- Pudendal and Obturator internus
Glutteus Maximus
O-Illium and sacrum
I- Gluteal Tuberocity and IT Band
A- Extends and laterally rotates hip
N- Inferior GLutteal nerve
Glutteus Medius
O- Illium
I- Greater Trochanter
A- Abductor, Upper Flex and medially rotate Lower Extend and Laterally Rotate Hip
N- SUperior Glutteal Nerve
Glutteus Minimus
O- Illium
I- Greater Trochanter
A- Abduct, Low- Extend and Laterally ROtate hip
Up- Flex and medially rotate
N- Superior Glutteal Nerve
Tensor Fascia Latta Muscle
O- Illiac Crest and ASIS
I- IT Band
A- Flexes, Abducts, and Medially rotates hip
N- Supperior GLutteal
Lateral Rotaters of the hip
Superior to Inferior
piraformus
Superior gemmelus
Obturator internus
Inferior Gemellus
Quadratus Femorus
Obturator externalis
blood vessels of the gluteal region
infer and super glutteal arteries, come off of intrnal illiac

Glutteal veins
nerves of the glutteal region
inferior and superior glutteal nerves (sup above piraformus, infer below)

Pudendal- just apssing through

Posterior femoral cutaneus- skin innervation on posterior thigh

Sciatic nerve- under piraformus, splits
Biceps Femorus Muscle
O
Long Head- Iscial Tuberosity
Short- linea aspera
I- fibular head
A- flexes knee.......long head will extend hip with other hamstring muscles
N- Long- Tibial Sciatic, Short- Peroneal
semitendonsus muscle
o- Ischial Tuberocity
I- Medial COndyle of the tibia
A- Flexes knee, extends hip
N- Tibial Sciatic
semimembranous muscle
O- Ischial Tubercity
I- Medial Surface of the Tibia
A- flexes knee, extends hip
N- Tibial Sciatic
Blood Vessels in Posterior Compartment
Perforating arteries from Profundafemoral artery, inferior gluteal
what is the precaution with bedrest?
Venous drainage could be a problem
Regions of the Lower extremity
Pelvic Girdle, Thigh, Leg, Ankle, Foot
Limb Development
Limbs originally developed from limb buds

UE have extensors on the posterior side, along with the ankle. They can rotate Laterally along a longitudinal axis at 90 degrees

LE rotate medially for 90 degrees, and have a knee and extensors on the anterior side
Innervation of the Lower Limb
Lubrsarcal plexus

Lumbro (L1-L4)
Obterator, femoral

Sacral (L4-S4)
Siatic, Pudendal, superior and inferior gluteals
Blood Supply to LE
Femoral artery begins after Ext. Illiac crosses the inguinal ligament, off of it come medial cirumflex and lateral circumflex, as well as perforating arteries coming off of the medial compartment and going posterior and descending genicular branch going towards knee

Also, Great saphenous vein and femoral vein
Hip formed by:
Illium, Ischium, Pubis

Fuse at puberty, form aschetabulum
Ascetabulum
Formed by three pelvis bones, contains a fossa, a lunate surface, and a notch. The Lunate surface is covered by the labrum (a cartilage surface) and the notch is filled by a transverse ligament
Illium
Has a fossa, a crest, an AIIS, ASIS, a PIIS, PSIS, and an arcuate surface where the sacrum articulates
Ischium
Ischial Tuberosities, Greater and a lesser sciatic notch, spine, ramus
Pubis
Pubis Synthesis (where the two meet), a body, superior and inferior ramus, and an obturator foramen (formed by ischium and pubis, covered by a membrane)
Femur
Articulates with the aschetabulum and the tibia

Proximal: Head, neck, greater and lesser trochanters, intertrchanter line, on posterior intertrochanter crest

Shaft -posterior linea aspera

Distal- Medial and lateral epicondyles, adductor tubercle, platelar surface, intercondular notch.
Tibia
Proximal- tuberocity, condyle, articular facet for fibula

Shaft

Distal end- Notch for fibula, facet for talus of foot, and medial maleolus
Fibula
Head

Shaft

Lateral end-lateral maleolus
what kind of bone is the patella?
sesamoid bone, b/c it is surrounded by tendon from muscle
Tarsals
Proximal: Talus and calcaneus

Middle- Navicular

Distal- Cuneiforms (Med, Intermediate, Lat), Cuboid
What's after tarsals on foot?
Metatarsals (base, shaft, distal head) and Phlanges (Prox, Mid, Distal)........1st digit has no middle phlange
What kind of joint is the hip, what does it do?
Ball and socket joint...aka....enarthrodial

Circumduct, adduct, abduct, flex, extend, lat and med rotation
what are the ligaments of the hip joint?
Ligamentum Teres--highway into femur bone
Pubofemoral
Illiofemoral---very powerful
Ishchiofemoral
Capsular
what innervates the hip joint?
femoral, obturator, sciatic

----can have referred pain b/c same things innervate knee
What supplies the hip joint?
Circumflex femoral arteries, obturator- to femoral head via ligamentum teres
foveolar artery-comes off of obturator artery, supplies head femur via ligamentum teres.
CNS
Central Nervous System- The brain and the spinal cord
PNS
Peripheral Nervous System- The cranial nerves and branches
Neurons
The functional unit- nerve cell body
Neurons
The functional unit- nerve cell body
axon vs. dendrites
single, long-takes impulse away from cell body

dend- mutliple extensions off of cell body.....take impulse into cell body
peripheral processes vs. central processes
peripheral processes connected to receptors

central processes- take info from receptors into CNS
Receptors
Convert physical stimulus into electric impulse
Effectors-
perform a function following a stimulus-typically on muscles or glands
two types of neurn bundles
Ganglion-outside CNS
Nucleus- inside CNS
synapse
how one neuron communicates with another, can be chemical or more likely electrical
neuromuscular junction
a connection of a muscle fiber and a nerve fiber....specialized synapse
Motor Unit
a motor neuron and the muscle it innervates

(more muscle fibers...borader movement) less muscle fibers, finer movement)
Afferent vs. Efferent
Afferent- into CNS from receptors, sensory fibers

Efferent-out of CNS to effector, motor fibers.
interneurons
neurons between neurons, serve as on/off switches...can inhibit or stimulate
neuroglia
supportive fibers b/t neurons
Gray Matter components
Dorsal horn-sensory imput
Ventral horn -motor output
Intramedialateral horn- part where there is visceral output via the autonomic nervous system
commisure- connects two sides
White Matter contents
Ascending and descending pathways
Spinal Nerves
8 Cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbrical, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
components of a spinal nerve
1. Dorsal Root and Dorsal Root Ganglia- contains sensory fibers and sensory nerves
2. VEntral Root- contains motor fibers
(first two make up spinal fibers)
3. Dorsal ramus- goes back to the true back muscles and skin
4. Ventral ramus-goes to anterior cavity and extremities
5. White Ramus- contain preganglionic fiber connections to sympathetic chain ganglion
6. Gray Ramus- contains postganglionic fiber connections from symp. chain ganglions
Autonomic Nervous system
automatic, takes care of functions without effort, has a preganglionic and a posganglionic portion....two neurons......controls visceral functions and maintains homeostasis (internal stability in the face of demands on the body)-hypothalamus controls it
Functions of the ANS
heart rate (cardiac muscle)
glands (glands)
respiration
pupilarry dialation
digestions
sexual function
contriction of the blood vessels
sympathetic vs. parasympathetic
sym- excitatory
para- relaxes

often work in contrast to each other
afferents vs. efferents in ANS
afferents- visceral receptors respond to changes in the body, and Visceral afferent fibers which connect to these receptors have origins in the visceral dorsal ganglionic root so the CNS can recieve information

Efferent- Visceral Efferent Fibers originate in the brain or the spinal cord, use a two neuron chain to affect glands, cardiac, and smooth muscles
preganglionic cells vs. postganglionic cells in the 2 neuron chain
pre live in the CNS and send a fiber out to the postganglionic cell

post live in the organs actually innervated by the preganglionic cell and send fibers out to smooth muscles, cardiac muscel, and glands
location of the preganglionic efferent fibers
sympathetic- located in the spinal cord, called thoracolumbars, from T1-L2 (intermediolateral gray nuculus)

parasympathetic- located in the brain and the sspinal cord. In the brain it's in the autonomic nucleus of cranial nerves 3-7-9-10
in the spinal cord it's in the sacral (S2-S4)

called craniosacral
Location of the postsympathetic efferents
sympathetic- paravertebral- attached to spinal nerves on both sides of the vertebrae. The gray ramus is only T1-L2, the white ramus is all of them.

Prevertebral- located anterior to the vertebral cllumn, unpaired

adrenal medula- modified postganglionic cells that secrete epinephrine into bloodstream


parasympathetic- cranial ganglia:
Cilliary- controls pupil diatatiion,cilliary msucle (3)
ptrygopalatine- controls the lacrimal gland and small glands in the oral and nasal cavity
submadibular gland- controls submandibular and sublinguinal salivary glands
octic- controls parotid salivary gland
terminal ganglionic- lives in the organ actually inervated by the preganglionic fiber....send short postganglionic fibers to the cells of the organ.......associated with organs innervated by 10 and pelvic nerve
sympathetic pathways
to peripheral vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and arrector pili muscles

to viscera via viseral ramus

to viscera via splanic nerves

to adrenal medulla via spanic nerves
parasympathetic pathways
westphal-ediger nucleus to cilliary muscles in the midbrain vis the ciliary ganglion


in the pons:
lacrimal nucleus to the lacrimal gland and the nasal and oral cavities vis the ptrygopalatine ganglion

superior salivary nucleus to the subsalivary and sublinguinal glands via the submadibular ganglion

via the medulla- inferior salvitory nucleus to the parotid gland via the otic ganglion

dorsal motor nuclus to the organs via the vagus nerve.
terminal ganglia pathways
s2,3,4 via the pelvic splanchnic nerve to the bttom of the LI, the bladder, and the erecction tissue of the genital
popliteal fossa
Boundaries: supralateral-biceps femoris
supramedial-semimembranosis overlaid by semitendonosus
inframedial and lateral- gastrocnemius

roof- fascia floor- posterior capsular ligament of knee joint, distal femur, popliteus muscle


what goest hrough it? popliteal artery and vein, common peroneal nerve, tibial nerve, small sapheneus and sural nerve are cutaneus

great and small sapheneus and sural are superficially cutaneus.
Tibialus Anterior
O-Lateral condyle and surface f the Tibia
I- Medial cuneiformis and the metatarsal of the 1st digit
A- Everts and dorsiflexes foot
N- Deep peroneal branch of the common peroneal
Extensor Digitorum Longus
O- Lateral condyle of the tibia and medial surface of the fibula
I- Middle and Distal digits of Digits 2-5
A- extends digits 2-5, inverts, dorsiflexes ankle
N- deep peroneal branch of the common peroneal
Extensor Hallicus Longus
O- Anterior surface of the fibula
I- distal phalanx of big toe
A- extends, iverts, dorsiflexes.
N- Deep peroneal branch of the common peroneal
perneus tertius
-extends at the bottom of extensor digitorum longus

O- anterior surface of tibia
I- base of 5th metatarsal
A- inverts, dorsiflexes.
peroneus longus
O- lateral surface and head of the fibula
I- medial cuneiform and 1st metatarsal (goes under sole diaganally)
A- everts and plantar flexes
N- deep peroneal branch of the common peroneal branch
peroneus brevus
O- lateral surface of the fibula
I-tuberosity on the metatarsal fo the 5th digit
A-eversion and plantar flexion
blood suplly to anterior portion of the leg
anterior tibial artery-branch of the popliteal artery before crossing ankle and turning into dorsalis petis
blood supply for the lateral compartment of the leg?
no real artery, comes off of posterior tibial, called peroneal branch
Gastrocnemius
two heads, from the lateral and medial condyles and posterior surface of the femur
I- inserts into calcaneustendon....aka....achillies heal...which goes to posterior calcaneus bone fo foot
A- flexes knee, plantar flexes, inverts
N- tibial sciatic nerve
Solleus
head and posterior surface of fibula.....soleal line of the tibual
I- inserts into posterior calcaneus
A- plantar flexes, inverts ankle
Plantaris
O-Posterior surface of the femur
I-joins achillies tenon
A- flexes knee, plantarflexes, inverts
N- Tibial nerve
Popliteus Muscle
Lateral Condyle of femur
I-Tibia
A- medially rotates tibia
laterally rotates femur
N- tibial
flexor digitorum longus
O- Posterior surface of the tibia
I- distal phlanges of 2-5
A- flexes digits, plantar flexes, inverts
flexor hallicus longus
posterior surface of the fibular
I- distal phlange of great toe
A- flexes big toe joints, plantar flexes, inverts
N- tibial
posterior tibialus muscle
O- Fibula, posterior surface of tibia, interocceus membrane
I- tubercle of the navicular, all other tarsals but talus
A-plantar flexes, iverts
N- Tibial.
inferior tibiofibular joint
syndesmoidal

bones and ligaments: anterior and psoterior tibiofibular, tibia and fibula, interccesus ligament, transverse ligament
talcrural
hinge- plantar flexes and dorsiflexes

bones: talus, tibia, and fibular

ligaments: capsular ligament

lateral thickening: anterior talofibular, posterior talkofibular, cacaneofibular.

interphalangeal- hinge
metatarsalphalangeal- condyloid

medial thickening- deltoid ligament...runs form tibia to navicular and calcaneus
platar ligaments
long and short....go from the calcaneus to the cuboid
longitudinal arches of the foot
lateral- first 3 metatarsals, cuneiforms, navicular, calcaneus, talus

medial- metatarsals 4-5, cuboid, calcaneus
transverse arch of the foot
series of arches

heads of metatarsals 1-5, cueniforms, cuboid, navicular.
subtalus joint
connects calcaneus and tarsal, planar joint....inversiona nd eversion
talocalcaneonavicular
head of talus fits into a space made by the calcaneus

planar but resembles a ball and socket

plantar calcaneonavicular ligament connects the sustenaculum talki t the calcaneus and the navicular.
calcaneocuboid
calcaneus and cuboid

plane, but resembels a saddle joint.

bifarcated ligament- connects calcaneus with cuboid and navicular.
calcaneocuboid
calcaneus and cuboid

plane, but resembels a saddle joint.

bifarcated ligament- connects calcaneus with cuboid and navicular.
other two minor intertarsal joints
intertarsal
tarsalmetatarsal
suppination vs pronation of the ankle and LEg
inversion, plantar flexion, adduction-suppination

eversion, abduction, dorsiflexion-pronation
Curvatures of the Spine
Primary- sacral and thoracic spine.......kyphosis-concavity forward

Secondary- cervical and lubrical curves......lordosis, convexity forward

scoliosis- a lateral deviation of the vertical vertebral axis into an S shape
structure of a typical vertebrae
1. body
2. vertebral arch-luminae(b/t transverse and spinal process) and pedicles (b/t body and transverse process)
3. transverse process
4spinal process
5. Superior and inferior vertebral notches
6. Superior and inferior articulatory facets
7. vertebral canal
charateristics of cervical
c3-c6
bifid spine
foreman transversalus- spinal artery comes through it
anterior and posterior tuberosities of transverse process
articulating facets of adjacent vertebraes face each other horizontally.....allow for rotation
special case cervical vertebrae
atlas (c1) no body, no spinal process......anterior and posterior arch with lateral mass b/t them
Axis(c2)- dens or odontiod process, pivot joint with atlas allows rotation
C7- vertebral prominens....you can palpate it
longest spinal process, non bifid spine
thoracic vertebrae (typical)
T2-T9
spineus processes are long and slant down
demifacets on bodies for heads of ribs
facets of transverse processes for tubercles of ribs
articulating facets face adjacent rib's facets on the coronal plane and allow for lateral bending
specialized thoracic vertebrae
T1 T10-12-transitional
Lumbar vertebrae (normal)
(L1-L4)- large bodies, short thick luminae and pedicles. spinal process is thick
- articulating facets on same level sagitally as adjacent vertebraes....allows for extension and flexion
Lumbar exception
L5
anterir body is deeper than posterior one
spondylolisthesis- forward displacement of a vertebrae over another (usually L4 over L5 or L5 over sacrum)
sacrum
S1-S5
fused, are wedged inbetween hips, anterior and posterior foramina are where spinal nerves leave
cocygeal
like a mini sacrum, fused, painful fractures.
name some surface landmarks of the vertebral column
C7- can be palpated
T7- at the inferior angle of the scapula
L4- a line connecting the highest points of the illiac crest.....point where spinal anesthema is given b/c less likely to hit a nerve
joints b/t adjacent vertebrae
syphesis

anterior longitudinal ligament- tightly connected, goes from anterior tubercle of C1 to sacrum
posterior longitudinal ligament- loosely connected, goes from occipital bone to the sacrum, in vertebral column
Vertebral Disks
account for about 1/4 of vertebral length, shock absorbers, consist of a fibrocartilage outside and a semigelatenous inside....semigelatenous part has herniations, atrophy's with age (part of why old people shrink)
joints b/t vertebral arches
facet joints- b/t articulating processes of adjacent vertebrae- gliding with capsules and synovial membrane

ligamentum flava- between laminae, contain elastic tissue
supraspinosus ligament- connect spinous processes from C7 to the sacrum
ligamentum nuchae- thick,membranous tissue from occipital bone to C7

interspinaus and intertransverse
atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial ligaments
occipital-gliding
axial-pivot

flex, extend, rotate
dens held in place by ligaments
costovertebral joints
costotransverse ligament- holds rib's tubercles to transverse processes

radiate lifament- holds head of rib to body of vertebrae
sacrilliac joint
sacrotubercle and sacrospinaeus ligaments holds sacrum to ischium

anterior and posterior sacroilliac ligaments
general about true back muscles
innervated by posterior primary ramus of spinal nerves

superficial run vertically, extend and laterally flex

deep run obliquely, rotate
splenus capitas
O- spines of C7 and T-4
I- occipital bone and mastoid process of temporal bone.
A- rotate head same way by contracting one side, extending neck and head by contracting both
splenius cervicis
Spines of T3-T6
transverse processes of upper cervical vertebrae.

rtates head to same side by contracting one side, contracting both extends head and neck
sacrospinalis
consits of three muscles, and three submuscles each......in general, connect to the illiac crest, sacrum, , spineus processes of lubrical vertebrae

Spinalus- most medial- connects spine to spine
capitis, cervicis, thoracis

Longisimus- connects transverse processes, capitis, cervicis, thoracis

Intercostalis- connects ribs
cervicis, capitis, lumboris

genrally....extenda nd laterally flex vertebral collumn
semispinalis muscle
in deep group-attaches transverse processes to spinal processes

O-transverse proc. of T and C vertebrae
I- capitas- ocipital bone
cervicis- C2-C5
thoracis- C6-T4

action- extend vertebral column and the head.

NOT FOUND BELOW THORACIC LEVEL
multifidus muscle
attaches spinaus processes to transverse processes
I- sacrum and transverse proc. of vertebra
o- spinal processes of 2nd, 3rd, 4th vertebrae above
A- rotate vertebral columns to opposite side.
rotatores muscle
O- transverse processes of vertebrae.
I- 1st and second spines of vertebrae above.
rotates in opposite direction
interspinales muscle
connect spines of adjacent vertebraes, don't travel all the way up vertebrae

extend vertebral column
intertransversarii muscle
connect trans. processes of adjacent vertebrae......extend spinal column...don't run all the way up the vertebrae.
suboccipital triangle
Medial border- rectus capitis posterior major
LAt. border- obliqus capitus superior
inferior- obliqus capitis inferior

roof- semispinalis capitis muscle

floor-atlanto-occipital membrane

contents- suboccipital nerve-innervates muscles making it up
vertebral artery- takes a 90 degree turn into triangle, turns again.
talk about the spinal cord
length is from foramane magnum to L4 in kids, L2 in adults (vertebral column lengthens)

cauda equina- horsetail of nerves.....root of nerves below L1

spinal nerves leave vertebral column through foramina
layers of protection of spinal cord.
dura matter- outer protection, toughest, thickest

arachnoid- shiny, delicate surface.....arachnoid space...under arachnoid where cerebrospinal fluid is, which protects cord

Pia matter- connected to cord, indistinguishable from cord.

Detante ligaments-alternate with spinal nerves......attach pia to the dura matter....provice structure all along spinal cord and vertebral column.
classification, movements, and bones of the knee joint
hinge, flexion, extension (at terminal extension, femur medially rotates), rotation

femur, tibia, patella, NOT Fibula, menisci (medi and lat. )
ligaments of the knee joint
1.capsular
2. Oblique popliteal- comes off of semimembranosus
3. Medial colateral-like a bandaid, most injured, prevents abduction, connected to medial meniscus, covered by pes anserinus (tendon from sartorius, gracilius, semitendonosus).
Lateralcolateral- goes under biceps femoris, prevents adduction, like a cord
-anterior cruciate- prevents the forward displacement of the tibia on the femur
-posterior cruciate- prevents the posterior displacement of the tibia on the femur
-ligament of wrisberg- connects lateral meniscus to medial condyle of the femur
- coronary ligament- connects meniscus to tibia
transverse ligament- connects meniscus in the anterior
Menscus
medial -c shaped
lateral-almsot complete circle
bursae
there are 12 bursae associated with the knee joint, that are under the ligaments crossing the joint

prepatelar ligament-injured often, in front of patella.
arteries of knee and nerves f knee
arteries- supplied by a rich anastomosis from the genicular branches of the femoral and popiteal arteries

nerves include femoral, obturator, sciatic
posterior fibiotibular joint
outside knee joint, planar.
axis of movement for the foot
2nd toe
plantar aponeurosis
posterior tie from teh calcaneus to the MTP joints
extensor digitorum brevus
O- anterior surface of the upper calcaneus
I- tendons of the extensor digitorum longus (a tendon also goes into prox. phalanx of the big toe called extensor hallicus longus)
A- extends MTP joints 1-4
N- deep peroneal
adductor hallicus
O-calcaneus
I-proximal phalanx of big toe
A- adducts MTP joint
N- Med. Planar
flexor digitorum brevus
O- Calcaneus
I- tendons of flexor digitorum longus
A- flexes MTP and IP joints of 2-5
N- medial plantar
flexor digiti minimi
O- calcaneus
I- prox. phalnx of 5th digit
A- Flexes at MTP joint
N- lat. plantar
quadratus plantae
O- Calcaneus
I- tendon of flexor digitorum longus
A- assists FDL
N- lat. plantar
lumbricals
4 of them
O- tendon of flexor digitorum longus
I tendons of extensor digitorum brevus
A- flex at MTP joints and extend at IT joint
N- 1st one-med plantar
others- lat plantar
two tendons of 2nd foot layer
flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallicus longus
three msucles of third foot layer
adductor hallicus- adducts MTP joint of big toe, lat. plantar

flexor hallicus brevus- flexes MPT joint of big toe, med. plantar

adductor digiti minimi- adducts 5th toe, lat. plantar
dorsal interoscii muscle
abducts digits 2-5, lat. plantar
plantar interoscii
adducts digits 2-5, lat. plantar
2 tendons of 4th foot layer
peroneus longus, posterior tibialus.
dorsal and plantar nerve innervations and arteries
dorsal artery- dorsalis pedi (from anterior tibial)
nerve- deep peroneal

plantar artery- med. and lat. plantar artery (from posterior tibial

nerves lat. and medial plantar (split of tibial nerve).