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134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anatomy
Study of Structure
microscopic anatomy
stuctures not visible to the unaided eye
cytology
cells of the body and their internal structure
histology
tissues formed by cells and cell produts
gross anatomy
body structures observable to the naked eye
developmental anatomy
structural chanes to the body between conception and maturation
embryology
origin and development of the organism from fertilization of the oocyte until birth
pathologic anatomy
characteristic changes that occur during illness
radiographic anatomy
gross anatomy of all structures, external and internal, in one region of the body
surface anatomy
superficial anatomic markings & gross anatomy of internal stuctures relative to overlying skin surface
Surgical anatomy
anatomic landmarks used prior to surgery
systemic anatomy
gross anatomy of all the componenets of an organ system
Structual organization of the body (hierarchy)
(chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism level)
Atoms- smalles unit of matter
Molecules- 2 or more atoms combined (H2O)
Cells-large molecules joined in a specific way
Tissues-groups of similar cells with a common funtion
Organs- contain 2 or more tissue types that work together to perform specific, complex functions
organism-
Characteristics of living things
Organization- structure & order
Metabolism- chemical RXN
Growth & development-
Responsiveness- to changes
Regulation-homeostasis
Reproduction-produce new cells
Integumentary System
Hair, skin, and associated glands

provides protection, regilates body temp., site of cutaneous receptors, sysnthesizes vit. D, prevents H2O loss
Skeletal System
Upper and Lower limb bones, skull, knee joint Sternum, rib, cartilage, vertebrae, sacrum

provides support and protection, site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production), stores Ca & P, allows body movement
Muscular System
Sartorius, frontalis, pectoralis major muscles, aponeurosis, tendons

produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract
Nervous System
Sense organ (eye), CNS, PNS, spinal cord, peripheral nerves

regulatory system that controls body movement, responds to senory stimuli, helps control all other systems of the body. responsible for consciousness, intellignece, memory
Endocrine System
Hypothalmus, pineal body, pituitary, thyrois, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, kidney, testes, ovaries

consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones, some which regulate body and cellular growth, chemical levels in the body, & reproduction functions
Cardiovascular System
Capillaries, heart, veins, arteries

consists of a pump (<3)that moves blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormones, nutrients, & gases, & pick up waste products
Lymphatic system
Tonsils, thymus, thoracic duct, cervical LN, axillary LN, spleen, inguinal LN, popliteal LN, lymphatic vessel

transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid) & initiates response when necessary
Respiratory system
Nasal cavity, nose, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pharynx (throat), larynx

responsible for the exchane of gases (O2, CO2) between blood & the air in the lungs
digestive system
oral cavity (mouth), salivary glands, esophagus, liver stomach, large and small Intestine

mechanically and chemically digests food materials, absobs nutrients, and expels waste products
Urinary system
kidney, bladder, urethra, ureter

filters blood and removes waste products from the blood, concentrates waste products in the form of urine and expels urine from the body
Male Reproductive system
ductus deferens, prostate gland, urethra, testis, scrotum, seminal vesicle, epididymis, penis

produes male sex cells (sperm) and male hormones (testosterone), tranfers sperm to the female
Female reproductive system
mammary glands, ovary, uterus, vagina, urerine tube, external genitalia (clitoris, labia)

produces femal sex cells (oocytes) and femal hormones (estrogen), receives sperm from male, site of fertilization of oocyte, site of growth and devlopment of embryo & fetus
Anatomic Position
specific body position in which an individual stands upright w/ the feet parallel and flat on the floor. arms are at eight side with the palms facing forward.
Section
actual cut or slice to expose the internal anatomy
plane
imaginary flat surface passing through the body
3 Major planes
Coronal- divides into anterior/posterior
Transverse-inferior/superior
sagittal- left and right halves
oblique plane
passes through the specimen @ an angle
Anterior
in front of; toward the front surface
Posterior
in back of; toward the back surface
Dorsal
at the back side
Ventral
at the belly side
Cranial
at the head end
Caudal
at the tail end or rear
superior
toward the head or above
Inferior
toward the feet or below
medial
toward the midline of the body
lateral
away from the midline of the body
deep
on the inside, underneath another structure
superficial
on the outside
promixal
closest to the point of attachment to trunk
distal
furthest from point of attachment to trunk
axial region includes which strucures
head, neck and trunk.
appendicular region includes wich structures
limbs, appendages, attach to the body's axis
cephaic
situated or directed toward the head
intermediate
being or situated between 2 points
parietal
lines the internal surface of the body wall
visceral
covers the external surface of organs within the cavity
central
middle, midline
Peripheral
next to midline or central
abdominal
region inferior to the thorax and superior to the hip bones
antebrachial
forearm (upper limb between the elbow and the wrist)
Antecubital
region in front of the elbow
axillary
armpit
brachial
arm (upper limb between the elbow and the shoulder)
buccal
cheek
calcaneal
heel of foot
carpal
wrist
cervical
neck
cranial
skull
coxal
hip
crural
leg
deltoid
shoulder
digital
finger or toes (phalanges)
dorsal
back
facial
face
femoral
thigh
frontal
forehead
gluteal
buttock
hallux
great toe
inguinal
groin
lumbar
loin
mammary
breast
manus
hand
mental
chin
nasal
nose
occiptial
posterior base of hand
olecranal
posterior of elbow
oral
mouth
orbital
eye
palmar
palm of hand
patellar
kneecap
pelvic
pelvis
perianal
region between the anus and the external reproductive organs
pes
foot
plantar
sole of foot
pollex
thumb
popiteal
area posterior to the knee
pubic
anterior region of the pelvis
sacral
posterior region between the hip bones
scapular
shoulder blade
sternal
middle of thorax, anteriorly
sural
calf
tarsal
ankle
thoracic
chest of thorax
umbilical
navel
vertebral
spinal column
mediastium
median space in the thoracic cavity
9 regions of the abdominopelvic area
R and L hypochondriac
R and L iliac
R and L lumbar
Hypo and epigastic
umbilical region
epigastic region
part of the liver, stomach, the duodenum, pancreas and both adrenal glands
umbilical region
transverse colon, part of the SI, branches of blood vessels to lower limbs
hypogastric region
past of SI, bladder, and the sigmoid colon of LI
R and L hypochondriac regions
R-part of the live, gallbladder and the right kidney

L-part of the stomach, spleen, left colic flexure of the LI, and part of the L kidney
R and L lumbar regions
R-ascending colon, and the R colic flexure of the LI, superior part of the cecum, part of the R kidney, and SI

L-descending colon, part of L kidney, part of SI
R and L iliac regions
R-inferior end of the cecum, appendix, part of SI

L-junction parts of the colon, part of SI
Alveolus
small cavity or hollow
ampulla
small dilated portion of a cavity
apex
pointed are
capsule
outer cover or wall
cortex
outer part of a structure
evagination
protrusion or buldging of a wall or structure
extremity
end portion; the limit of a part
follicle
small secreting cavity or sac
germ
an offshoot or bud
invagination
inward buldging of a wall
lamella
thin plate or layer
lumen
space within a tube
papilla
small protuberance or elevation
sinus
hollow area or cavity, a narrow opening
stroma
tissue that forms the support or frameworkof an organ
vesicle
small saclike structure containing fluid
vestibular
small cavity or dilated region at the beginning of a passageway
villus
small fingerlike projection
viscera
pertaining to the organs of the body cavities
chimera
lion with extra goat head and snake tail

female, natural disaster
griffin
lion body with eagle head and wings

symbol of divine power
Harpies
man with bird legs and wings, holding srrows

winged death spirit or life
Medusa
female snake head

goddess, wouls turn you to stone with one look
phoenix
eagle from flames

dies in flames reborn in ashes
sirens
mermaid

would play musice to attrack sailors, wruck ship and eat the sailors
sphinx
lion body, human head, with wings

guardians of egyptian sanctuaries