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124 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 Basic Tissue Types?
Muscle, Connective, Nerve, Epithelium
SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR
ABOVE AND BELOW
CEPHALAD AND CAUDAD
HEAD AND TAIL
ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR
FRONT AND BACK
MEDIAL AND LATERAL
MIDDLE AND OUTSIDE
ISPILATERAL AND CONTRALATERAL
SAME SIDE OR OPPOSITE SIDE
PROXIMAL AND DISTAL
NEAR ATTACHMENT OF TRUNK AND DISTANT FROM ATTACHMENT
VENTRAL AND DORSAL
BELLY SIDE AND BACK SIDE
SAGITTAL PLANE
LEFT AND RIGHT PLANES
CORONAL PLANE
FRONTAL PLANE (ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR PLANES)
TRANSVERSE PLANE
SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR PLANES
TOMOGRAPHY
cutting slices through the body
CYTOLOGY
the study of cells
DIFFERENTIATION
development of specialized structures and functions
INCLUSIONS
stores droplets of melanin, protien, glycogen and lipid
NUCLEUS
command and control center
CHROMOSOMES
condensed DNA
RIBOSOMES
protein synthesis
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
protien processing
GOLGI APPARATUS
prosessing and trafficing protiens
MICROTUBULES
movement and support
MICROFILAMENTS
maintain muscle shape, aid in muslce contraction
MITOCHONDRIA
powershouse of cell... ATP production
PLASMA MEMBRANE
regulates material movement in and out of cell
LYSOSOME
digests materials ingested by cell
MITOSIS
somatic cell division
PROPHASE
1st phase of mitosis
p is for puffy ball of chromosomes that form in the center of the cell
METAPHASE
2nd phase of mitosis
m stands for middle because chromosomes align along the middle of the cell.
ANAPHASE
3rd phase of mitosis
a stands for apart because the sister chromatids are pulled apart.
TELOPHASE
4th phase of mitosis
t stands for two because two new cells begin to form as a cleavage furrow divides the cytoplasm
Epithelia
Covers and lines surfaces, organs, cavities, and ducts.... Everywhere!
Connective Tissue
Support and Storage--Immunity
Fat, Bone, and Blood
Muscle
Movement and Interaction with our Enviroment
Nervous Tissue
Coordination of body activity
3 Layers of Germs
Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm 8 days into gestation
Where is Ectoderm located?
Nervous System and Epithelia
Where is Endoderm located?
Epithelia
Where is Mesoderm located?
Epithelia, Connective Tissues, Muscles
Def of Epithelia:
Self- Renewing cell population
Blood Vessels in epithelia?
No there are no blood vessels in Epithelia... so you won't bleed on the first layer of skin!
ECM in Epithelia?
Little or no Extra Cellular Matrix between cells
How is Epithelia organized?
In continous sheets (layered or single)
Epithelia... Polar?
Yes, each epithelium has an apical surface and a basal surface
Epithelia Cell Junctions?
Secure attachments tht allow communication
List the 4 different cell junctions in the epithelia.
Tight- competely attaches each cell to the neighbor
Adherens- around the cell
Desmosomes/Hemidesomsomes- basement membrane
Gap Junctions- small passage way connections
Epithelia ... Avascular?
Avascular... nutrients delivered/ wastes removed via diffusion
Does Epithilia have its own nerve supply?
Yeah!
Epithelia
high mitotic rate
Germ Layers for Epithelia...
All 3 Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm
Epithelial Shapes
(Based on Apical layer)
Squamous
Cubodial
Columnar
Transitional (in bladder)
Epithelial Layers
Simple(single layers)
Stratified (layered)
Pseudo-Stratified Columnar (found in lung)
APICAL LAYER
Free on top of the surface
BASAL LAYER
Bottom surface
Squamous simple
(scales) floor tiles
lines blood vessels
lines body cavities
Cuboidal simple
like bricks
secretion and absorbtion
Columnar simple
Secretion and absorbtion
Statified Epithelia
Based on the most apical layer
Stratified Squamous
skin and mucous membranes
for waterproofing and protection
Startified Cubodial
sweat glands
Stratified Columnar
large excretory glands
Stratified Tansitional
Ureters, bladder- allows distenstion and recovery
Pseudostratified
single layer, but appears to be stratified but all cells in contract with basement membrane
- upper respritory tract
fnx- secretion and movement of mucus
coughed out or swallowed!
mucous
lines the body cavity open to the exterior enviroment ex: respritory tract, mouth, anus, eyes
serous
lines a body cavity not directly open to the exterior
synovial
lines cavities of freely moveable joints
Connective Tissues
underneath epithilum fat, bone, cartiagle, tendon, blood
cells -- ecm
Connective Tissues have blood supply??
They all have a rich blood supply except cartilage and tendons
endothelia
same as connective tissue with no blood supply
Cells in Connective Tissues
Fibroblasts
Macrophages
Plasma Cells
Mast Cells
Adipocytes
Fibroblasts
default CT cell; makes and secrets collagen; responsible for maintain of ECM
Macrophages
aka histiocytes
1. fixed in ECM
2. motile= phagocytosis of bacteria, cellular debris, forign objects wander in CT
Plamsa Cells
(immune) derived from WBC's
lives in the connective tissue of GI tract- mammary glands
Mast Cells
Histamine Release
Vastolidation-production/release of heparin-inhibit in blood clotting
Adipocytes
fat storage
ExtraCellular Matrix (ECM)
amorphous-active in development, remodeling, repair, and metabolism
Hyaluronan
hydroscopic, lubricates joints, facilitates movements of cells
Collagen
Repair of the body
Most abundant protein in the body (25% wet weight)
Over 14 Types
Great Tensile Strengh (doesn't fold under pressure)
Elastin
Found in skin, blood vessels, and lungs
Can stretch to 150% and then recoil
Reticular Fibers
web/net delicate
collegan + various glycoprotiens
Skin
the casing forming the outside surface of a structure
3 Layers of Skin
epidermis
dermis
subcutaneous
Epidermis
...Stratisfied Squamous Epithielium
4 cell types:
i keritinocytes 90% (make new cells)
ii melanocytes 8% (sheild DNA from UV)
iii langerhans cells
iv Merkel cells-immune and sensory
Dermis
composed of connective tissue
Subcutaneous
composed of superfacial fascia and hypodermis
Epidermal Layers
startum basale
cuboid to columnar
constantly dividing
Epidermal Layers
s. spinosum
Hornly/Prickly
(Next 8 to 10 rows)
Epidermal Layers
s. granulosum
(3-5 layers cells accumulate kertain in keratohyaline granules, lamellar granulars contain lipid- responsible for waterproofing
Epidermal Layers
s. lucidum
3-5 rows of flattened kertainocytes nearl full of keratohyaline granules- which is only in thick skin
Epidermal Layers
s. corneum
25-30 rows anucleated cells composed almost entirely of cytoskeletal filaments and kertainoaline matrix-- paste to hold death cells
Contents of the Dermis:
Adipocytes(fat cells), fibroblasts, microphages, blood vessels cells, hair, nerves, glands.
Layers of the Dermis
Papillary Dermis
Papillary Dermis-- nearest to the epidermis
represents 20% of dermal thickness
characterized by dermal papillae, indentations into the epidermis contain capillary loops special sensory structures.
-Home to the blood vessels
Reticular Dermis
the deeper 80% of the dermis
composed of dense irregular connective tissue
collagen and elastin fibrils= strength and resiliency
Variations of the skin
The variations in the thickness of the reticular dermis that account for the difference in the thickness between the thickness of the skin-- heel vs. eye lids
Functions of the Skin

largest immune and sensory organ
1. Mechanical Protection
2.Regulation of Body Temp
3. Sensation
4. Excretion and Absorbtion
5.Immunity
6. Blood Reservior (holds 10%)
7.Vitamin D synthesis
How does the color of the skin form?
Due to melanocytes in epidermis
What does the amount of melanin synthesized do?
is the basis of basic skin pigmentation

but everyone has the same amount of melanin
vitiligo
genetic absense of melanocytes from areas of the skin
Composition of Bone
Mineral Salt- 50%
Protien- 25%
Water 25%
Ceruminous Glands
earwax protection
Functions of the Bones:
Support
site for attachments (muscles and organs)
Functions of the Bones:
Protection
ribs, vertebrae (internal organs) skull (brain) invovles axial skeleton
Functions of the Bones:
Movement
muscle contraction changes the andles between bones at joints, producing skeletal/body movement
Functions of the Bones:
Mineral Storage/Release
Ca2, P, Mg2
Functions of the Bones:
Blood Cell Production
Hematopoiesis
takes place in bone marrow
Functions of the Bones:
Energy Storage
in fat cells of bone marrow
Osteoprogenitor
Bone cell
capable of division
found in cells of periosteum and endosteum
Osteoblast
Bone cell
differentiatd cells that produce new bone matrix (start to lay down bone-- do not divide)
Continuously add matrix
Osteocytes
Bone cell
an osteoblast "trapped" in its own matrix
maintenance and mineralization of bone
Osteoclasts
Bone cell
bone reabsorbtion and remodeling
responds to hormones that regulate blood Ca2 levels
Continuously remove matrix
Periosteum
(Bone) fibrous outer layer+ osteogenic inner layer (like shrink wrap)
-site of ostroprogenitor cells which are deep in the skin!
Epiphysis
site of bone to bone connections (enlarged to strenghthen joint)
Diaphysis
(shaft) the length of the bone
Metaphysis
(Epiphyseal plate) site of new bone growth
Medullary (marrow) cavity
site of hematopoiesis and fat storage
(hollow site in the shaft of the
Endosteum
innermost lining of bone- contains ostroblasts and osteoclasts
Compact Bones
external layers of all bones.. esp shaft of long bones
solid and dense
Compact Bones
Organization??
Stuctural Unit: Osteon(Haversian System)
Haversian Canal
Lies within the osteon and runs parallel to it; traveling within the canal are the blood vessels, nerves, lynph vessels, which are supplied to the bone
Concentric Lamella
Mineralized matrix in concentic rings look like small plates that surround the osteon
Interstitial Lamella
Areas between osteons represent older, partially "remodeled" osteons, They have been partially reabosbed and do not have a cental canal
Lacunae
Spaces that house an osteocyte and are connected by canalicuil
What are Canaliculi?
connect the lacunae and permit passage of O2 and CO2, wastes and nutrients
Volkmann's Canal
aka perforating canals
(perp to bones long axis) allow entry of blood vessels/nerves into interior of bone
Spongy Bone: Cancellous
Pericentral region of most long bones and short flat and irregular shaped bones ei- sternum, clavicle, carpals