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161 Cards in this Set

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Anatomy
The study of the structure of the body. [ana (apart) -tomy (to cut)]
systemic
the approach we use to study anatomy- system by system
regional
another approach to study anatomy- one specific area (region) at a time
standard anatomical position (4 criteria)
1. standing erect
2. facing the observer
3. arms at sides
4. palms facing forward
anterior/ventral
front
posterior/dorsal
back
medial
toward midline
lateral
away from midline
superior
above
inferior
below
proximal
toward trunk
distal
distant from trunk
internal
inside
external
outside
parietal
toward "wall" of cavity
visceral
toward inside of cavity
superficial
toward surface
deep
far interior
immediately
very next (i.e. "immediately deep")
plane
broad, flat surface
sagittal plane
runs vertically, from anterior to posterior; splits body in left and right halves
frontal (coronal) plane
runs vertically, from side to side; splits body into front (anterior) and back (posterior)
transverse (cross) plane
runs horizontally; "slices" body
mid-sagittal (median) plane
runs vertically along midline; there can be only one
bilateral symmetry
the body can be divided into identical right and left sides
body walls (paries)
surround cavities
cranial cavity
holds brain
spinal cavity
holds spine
thoracic cavity
chest (thorax); protected by ribs
pleural cavities
lateral divisions of thoracic cavity; hold lungs
mediastinal cavity
"middle space"; medial division of thoracic cavity
pericardial cavity
within mediastinum; holds heart
abdominal-pelvic cavity
inferior to diaphragm
diaphragm
most important muscle for breathing; divides thoracic and abdominal-pelvic cavities
cervix
neck (or "constriction")
face
anterior portion of the head
cranium
brain case
skull
cranium + face bones
head
skull + flesh
trunk
torso; 3 parts
thorax
above diaphragm
abdomen
between diaphragm and top of hip bones
pelvis
below top of hips
pectoral girdle
incomplete ring made up of scapula and clavicle
brachium
arm (proximal portion of upper extremity)
antebrachium
forearm
carpus
wrist
metacarpus
hand minus digits (palm-area)
pollex
thumb
pelvic girdle
incomplete circle formed by hip bones
femoral region
thigh
crus
leg (distal portion of lower extremity)
tarsus
ankle
metatarsus
foot minus digits
hallux
big toe
digits
fingers and toes
cell
a cubed mass of living matter
tissue
groups of similar cells working together to perform a function
epithelial tissue
lining (3 types)
squamous
flat, scale-like
cuboidal
cube-shaped
columnar
long, hair-like
simple (epithelial cells)
single layer (of epithelial cells)
stratified
layered
pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells
falsely-layered, hair-covered, long lining cells [hyphen and spaces added for reference only]
connective tissue
connects; i.e. collagen, elastin (proteins)
muscular tissue
long, can contract
nervous tissue
coordinates activities; neurones
organ
groups of similar tissues working together to perform a function
system
groups of similar organs working together to perform a function
organism
group of similar organ systems working together to perform a function
linear guide
an imaginary line drawn on the surface to denote deeper-lying structures
anatomical guide
the location of a structure in relation to other structures
anatomical limits
the origin and termination points of a structure in relation to other structures
anterior cervical triangle: boundaries
superior: inferior border of mandible
lateral: sternocleidomastoid muscle
medial: midline of neck
anterior cervical triangle: contents
lateral to medial, superficial to deep:
external jugular vein
internal jugular Vein
vegus Nerve
common carotid Artery
axilla
hollow of the armpit; shaped like a pyramid
axilla: major contents
brachial plexus (network of nerves)
axillary vein
axillary artery (deep and medial to vein)
femoral (Scarpa's) triangle: boundaries
superior: inguinal (Poupart's) ligament
lateral: sartorius (Tailor's) muscle
medial: abductor longus muscle
femoral (Scarpa's) triangle: contents
femoral Nerve
femoral Artery
femoral Vein
Empty space
Ligament
integumentary system
skin and derivatives
skin slip
a sign of decomposition; gases push liquids toward surface, separating the 2 layers of skin
epidermis
paper-thin superficial layer of skin
dermis
thick layer of skin; deep to epidermis
derivatives
outgrowths of epidermis; hair, nails
keratin
tough, callus-type material; makes us waterproof; nails are pure keratin
sebum
oil, secreted from sebaceous glands; lubricates hair
sudor
sweat, secreted from sudoriferous glands; keeps us cool
osteology
the study of bones
osteocytes
bone cells
bones: contents (2 parts)
tough calcium salts (as a matrix),
osteocytes (flexible, rubbery);
young bones are mostly cells, elderly are mostly matrix
bones: function
structure and support
bones: number
206 classified (named)
sesamoid bones
unclassified, strengthen tendons
sutural (wormian) bones
unclassified; strengthen the "sutures" connecting skull parts
axial skeleton
bones on the midline (80); skull (22 + 6 ear ossicles), hyoid, vertebrae (26), sternum, costae (ribs) (24)
appendicular skeleton
"appendages" (extremities) and attachments; begin at pelvic and pectoral girdles
ossicles
"little bones"; 3 per ear: malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (saddle)
hyoid
"U-form"; suspended in neck at base of tongue; only bone that does not articulate (attach) to any other bone
sternum
breastbone
costae
ribs; connected by costal cartilage; "intercostal" means "inside ribcage"
skeleton
the boney framework of the body
skull
boney framework of the head
frontal bone
gives support to the forehead
supraorbital margin
superior edge of the orbit (eye socket)
superciliary arches
elevations where eyebrows grow
glabella
elevation on midline; medial to superciliary arches; pronounced on feminine faces
frontal eminences
large, rounded elevations above superciliary arches; pronounced on masculine faces
sinus
"space"; honeycomb air cells lined with mucus membrane
frontal sinus
hollow spaces inside the frontal bone
parietal bones
top and part of sides of cranium; "paries" means "wall"
occipital bone
back and part of base of cranium; attaches to C1 (Atlas)
occipital cordyles
large, round processes that attach to C1
foramen magnum
large hole for spinal column; "foramen" means "hole"
external occipital protuberence
"bump" on occipital bone
temporal bones
sides of skull; thin; "temporal" means "time"
squamous portion (of temporal)
upper flared portion of temporal bone; very thin; prone to temporal fracture (bleeds into ears)
petrous temporal
contains middle ear and ossicles; very hard; "petrous" means "stone"
carotid canal
houses internal carotid artery
mastoid process
inferior attachment to temporal bone; hollow; "breast-form"
mandibular fossa
socket for TMJ; "fossa" means "depression"
TMJ
temporal mandibular joint
external auditory meatus
ear canal; "meatus" means "enlongated opening"
zygomatic arch
cheekbone; forms uniquely from three centers of ossification; 3 parts, anterior to posterior:
zygomatic bone,
temporal process of zygomatic,
zygomatic process of temporal
sphenoid bone
"wedge-form"; bat-shaped; 'wedged" into floor of cranial vault
sella turcica
"turkish saddle"; depression in sphenoid (body of the "bat"); houses pituitary gland
sphenoidal sinuses
honeycomb air cells in sphenoid
ethmoid
"sieve-form"
cribriform plate
crib-shaped; very weak
crista galli
"rooster's comb"; midline projection; divides brain in half
perpendicular plate
divides nasal cavity along midline; forms septum
ethmoidal sinus
honeycomb air cells in ethmoid
calvaria
skull cap; top portion of skull, removed in autopsy
orbit
eye socket; 4 sides, 3 bones
facial bones: number
14
nasal bones
support bridge of nose (2)
lacrimal (tear) bones
contain an opening into the nose to drain tears (2)
zygomatic bones
front portion of cheekbones (zygomatic arches) (2)
maxilla
upper jaw
pallatine processes
anterior parts of hard palate (2)
pallatine bones
posterior portion of hard palate (2)
aveolar processes
tooth sockets; found in both jaws
maxillary sinus
largest perinasal sinus
vomer
"plow-shape"; midline of nasal cavity; locks perpendicular plate in place
inferior nasal concha
warm air to prevent disease; "conchae" means "shells"
mandible
lower jaw
body (of mandible)
thick, U-shaped portion; contains aveolar processes
mental protuberance
most anterior point of chin
ramus (of mandible)
superior parts of mandible; "ram" into TMJ
angle (of mandible)
corner of jaw; between body and ramus
cervical vertebrae: location
neck
cervical vertebrae: number
7
atlas
C1 (first cervical vertebra)
axis
C2 (second cervical vertebra)
thoracic vertebrae: location
chest
thoracic vertebrae: number
12
lumbar vertebrae: location
"loin" area
lumbar vertebrae: number
5
the largest moveable vertebrae are found in the __________ region.
lumbar
sacrum
second most inferior vertebra; 5 pieces fused
coccyx
tailbone; most inferior vertebra; 4 pieces fused