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92 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the primordium of the heart forms from which germ layer?
the splanchnic layer of the lateral plate mesoderm
does the primordium of the heart form at the rostral or caudal end of the embryo?
rostral
which cell clusters coalesce to form the right and left endocardial tubes?
angiogenic cell clusters
where are the angiogenic cell clusters located?
in a horse-shoe shape around the neural plate
which embryonic feature becomes the pericardial cavity?
intraembryonic coelom
the dorsal aortae develop on either side of which embryonic structure? They become continuous with which structures?
notochord; endocardial tubes
why are the endocardial tubes forced into the thorax?
longitudinal folding
what effect does lateral folding of the embryo have on the endocardial tubes?
brings them together in the midline where they fuse together
what is the name for the structure which arises from the fusion of the two endocardial tubes in the embryo?
primary heart tube
at which ends of the endocardial tubes does fusion not occur?
caudalmost
the primary heart tube is suspended in the primitive pericardial cavity by what structure?
dorsal mesocardium
what is the fate of the dorsal mesocardium?
it breaks down so that the primary heart tube is completely surrounded by pericardium
the primary heart tube is anchored in the pericardium by its connections with which structure? Is this connection cranial or caudal?
dorsal aortae; cranial
the primary heart tube is connected with which structure at its caudal end?
vitelloumbilical veins
what is the name of the caudalmost expansion of the primary heart tube? What forms the caudalmost structure of the primary heart tube?
primitive atrium; sinus venosus
what are the two main components of the sinus venosus?
right and left sinus horns
which veins drain into the right and left sinus horns?
common cardinal veins
in the primary heart tube, which sulcus lies cranial to the primitive atrium?
atrioventricuar sulcus
what does the atrioventricular sulcus form internally?
atrioventricular canal
which expansion of the primary heart tube is cranial to the primitive atrium and the AV sulcus?
primitive ventricle
which atrium does the primitive atrium eventually become?
both left and right
which ventricle does the primitive ventricle eventually become?
the left ventricle
the interventricular sulcus of the primary heart tube divides which two expansions?
primitive ventricle and bulbus cordis
what does the interventricular sulcus form internally?
interventricular septum
what are the 3 parts of the bulbus cordis?
bulbus cordis, conus cordis, truncus arteriosus
what structures of the heart does the bulbus cordis become? The conus cordis? The truncus arteriosis?
right ventricle; outflow tract of both ventricles; roots and proximal parts of aorta and pulmonary trunk
at its superior end, to what is the truncus arteriosus connected?
first aortic arch
what is the result of having the caudal and cranial ends of the heart tube anchored in the pericardium?
when it elongates, it is forced to bend and twist on itself
in the normal folding of the heart, the cephalic portion of the heart tube bends ________, ________, and to the ________ while the caudal portion bends ______, ________, and to the _______.
ventrally; caudally; right; dorsally; cranially; right
how does the atioventricular canal change orientation during cardiac looping?
it shifts medially so it is in touch with both ventricles and not uniquely the left ventricle
what is the name for the first part of the interatrial septum?
septum primum
which features appear in the area of the AV canal as it moves medially?
endocardial cushions
the septum primum grows from where to where?
dorsal wall of primitive atrium to endocardial cushions of AV canal
what is the name of the opening formed by the free end of the septum primum?
ostium primum
to which features of the AV canal does septum primum bind?
endocardial cushions
what happens as septum primum binds to endocardial cushions?
perforations appear in the upper portion of the septum primum
the perforations of the septum primum coalesce to form what structure of the embryonic heart?
ostium secundum
what is the name of the septum which forms immediately to the right of the septum primum?
septum secundum
which of the interatrial septa does not completely form a partition in the atrial cavity?
septum secundum
what is the name for the gap left in the septum secundum? This allows for communication between which chambers of the heart?
foramen ovale; left and right atria
in the cardiac loop, what separates the two future ventricles of the heart?
interventricular sulcus
which divide the atrioventricular canal?
endocardial cushions
what happens in the region of the interventricular sulcus to help separate the two ventricles?
muscular tissue begins to protrude into the cardiac lumen from the floor of the ventricles towards the endocardial cushions
which two events characterize the formation of the membranous part of the interventricular septum?
further growth of the endocardial cushions and downgrowth from the septum that divides the truncus ateriosus
the cardiac outflow pathway is divided into two by right and left _______________ that grow from opposite walls of the ____________________ and the __________________.
truncoconal swellings; conus cordis; truncus ateriosus
what is the name for the septum which forms to separate the two major outflow tracts of the right and left ventricles?
aorticopulmonary septum
how does the aorticopulmonary septum develop?
as a spiral
separation of the aortic and pulmonary outflow tracts becomes complete when the truncoconal swellings fuse with the ______________ and _________________.
endocardial cushions; interventricular septum
initially, how does blood enter the heart tube?
sinus venosus
which three veins drain into each horn of the sinus venosus?
common cardinal veins, vitelline veins, and umbilical veins
the vitelline veins drain blood from where in the embryo?
yolk sac and derivatives of the gut tube
the vitelline venous system gives rise to what? This carries blood from where to where?
liver sinusoids; gastointestinal tract to liver
on the visceral suface of the liver, the ductus venosus shunts blood from where to where?
umbilical vein to inferior vena cava
umbilical veins bring blood from where?
placenta
the right sinus horn becomes the most proximal portion of the ___________ and _________________.
inferior vena cava and superior vena cava
what happens to the sinus venosus as the heart is enlarging?
the right side is incorporated into the posterior wall of the developing atrium
what is the name for the part of the sinus venosus that becomes part of the right atrium?
sinus venarum
what is the destiny of the portion of the primitive atrium which is displaced by the sinus venarum?
right auricle
what is the name for the line which divides the smooth and rough aspects of the right atrium?
crista terminalis
what is the destiny of the left sinus horn?
coronary sinus
the pulmonary veins sprout from the _________________ and grow towards the lungs.
primitive atrium
which vessels are reabsorbed by the left atrium and displace the original aspect of the atrium, forcing it to become the left auricle?
pulmonary veins
what are the components of the arterial system of the embryo?
dorsal aortae and aortic arch arteries
as the longitudinal folding forces the endocardial tubes into the ventral thorax, what happens to the paired dorsal aortae?
they are pulled ventrally to form a pair of dorsoventral loops
the dorsoventral loops formed by the dorsal aortae form what aspect of the arterial system?
1st aortic arch
the aortic arches develop in which succession?
craniocaudal
the embryonic aortic arch system is eventually remodeled to form what?
system of great arteries in the upper thorax and neck
the 4th aortic arch undergoes assymetric remodeling. On the right side, the 4th aortic arch loses its connections with the ___________ and the ______________ and contributes to the ______________________.
dorsal aorta; 6th aortic arch; right subclavian artery
the proximal parts of the 6th aortic arch form what?
pulmonary arteries
from which embryonic structure does the pulmonary trunk develop?
truncus arteriosus
on the ____________ side, the distal part of the 6th aortic arch disappears and on the _________ side, the distal part forms the _______________.
right; left; ductus arteriosus
what is responsible for the assymetry of the left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves?
asymmetric development of right and left aortic arches
the right and left recurrent laryngeal nerves arise where? The left nerve is caught under where? The right?
below the level of 6th aortic arch; 6th aortic arch; 4th aortic arch
the dorsal aortae fuse in the region of the aortic arches to form what?
descending aorta
the foramen ovale shunts blood from which chamber to which other chamber?
right to left atrium
which feature shunts blood from the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta?
ductus arteriosus
what does the ductus venosus shunt? What does it bypass?
oxygenated blood from umbilical vein directly to the inferior vena cava; the liver
are the foetal lungs high or low resistance? Adult lungs?
high; low
what happens upon the first breath of a newborn?
lungs expand, pulmonary vessels open, and resistance of pulmonary circuit drops
the closure of umbilical veins results in the formation of what?
ligamentum teres hepatis
the closure of umbilical arteries results in the formation of what?
medial umbilical ligaments
which pressure changes in the atria cause the foramen ovale to close?
larger pressure in the left atrium and reduced pressure in the right atrium
what is the name for the remnant of the foamen ovale?
fossa ovalis
the closure of the ductus arteriosus results in the formation of what?
ligamentum arteriosus
the closure of the ductus venosus results in the formation of what? Where is this?
ligamentum venosum; fissure on the visceral surface of the liver at the root of the lesser omentum
what is coartation of the heart? What are they two catagories?
severe constriction of the aorta in the regions of the ductus arteriosus; pre-ductal or post-ductal
what is the most common form of an atrial septum defect (ASD)?
a probe patent foramen ovale where the septum primum and the septum secundum form an incomplete seal
in which portion of the interventricular septum is a ventricular septal defect normally found?
membranous portion
what is the problem in a patent ductus arteriosus?
abnormal circulation between aorta and pulmonary trunk
what are the four anatomical components associated with Tetralogy of Fallot?
ventricular septal defect, pulmonic stenosis, over-riding aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy
what is transposition of the great vessels?
when the pulmonary trunk arises from the left ventricle and the aorta from the right ventricle.
what is dextrocardia? People who suffer from dextrocardia also usually suffer from what?
when the primitive heart folds to the right instead of to the left; situs inversus