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48 Cards in this Set

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? is a description of morphologic events

Ex: gross changes in form
Classic Embryology
? is the molecular events responsible for morphologic changes
molecuar embryology
? events commit a cell to a specific fate.
Molecular events
What are the 2 stages of Commitment?
Specification

Determination
? is the capacity for tissue specific differentiating in a NEUTRAL environment
Specification
? is the nearly irreversible commitment to tissue-specific differentiation irrespective of environment
Determination
What are the mechanisms of Cell commitment?
Autonomous Specification

Conditional Specification
? is when determinants present int he zygote cytoplasm segrate into different blastomeres during cleavage.
Autonomous Specification

aka Mosaic Development
P granules (germ cell specification) is an example of what type of specification?
Autonomous specification

aka mosaic development
? is where cell fate depends on the cells environment and cell-cell interaction.
Conditional Specification

aka Regulative Development
What is the type of development that is predominated in human development is?
Regulative development

(conditional specification)
? are considered to be MASTER REGULATORS of development.
Transcription Factors
What do transcription factors do?
Interact with DNA to regulate a cascade of genes including additional transcription factors
? is developmentally important family of transcription factors.
Homeodomain Proteins
? is the ability to transform one body part into another .

(ex: antenna into legs)
Homeosis
? is 60 amino acid DNA binding domain that is encoded by a 180 base pair Homeobox.
Homeodomain

(protein)
What encodes for the homeodomain 60 amino acid DNA binding domain?
Homeobox (180 base pair)
What are examples of transcription factors?
homeodomain proteins

-HOX

-Nkx

Lim
Which subfamily of homeodomain proteins is the Basic Body Plan under?
Hox
Which subfamily of homeodomain proteins is the Heart Development associated with?
Nkx
What subfamily of homeodomain proteins is CNS and Limb development associated with?
Lim
EARLY expression establishes cranial caudal SEGMENT IDENTITY ;; then reutilized to establish organ morphology
Hox
Humans have ? incomplete sets of Hox genes on ? separate chromosomes.
4 incomplete sets of Hox genes

4 Separate chromosomes
What are the 2 hypotheses of The Hox Code?
Posterior Predominance

Hox Code (overlapping expression)
? is the expression of posterior genes in a given region predominates over more anterior genes in specifying segment identity.
Posterior Predominance

(hox code)
Segment identity is based on the combination of Hox gene expression in the given segment.
Overlapping expression

(hox code)
What are the 4 ways in which molecules regulate cell commitment and development?
Transcription factors

Ligand Mediated Transcription Factors / Nuclear Receptors

Surface Receptor Mediated Regulation

Molecules that Modify Transcriptional Regulation
Give examples of Ligand Mediated TF / Nuclear Receptors.
Estrogen, Progesterone, other steroids (LIPOPHILIC molecules bind to a nuclear receptor/TF)

Retinoic Acid (RA)
Vitamin A derivative.

Tight control of expression and activity
Retinoic Acid (RA)
On what receptors do retinoic Acid work on?
act via NUCLEAR RECEPTORS RAR and RXR
RAR/RXR Ligand bound receptors bind to ? within responsive genes to regulate transcription
RA response elements (RARE)
What transports Retinoic Acid into the nucleus?

allowing it to bind with RAR/RXR
CRABP

cellular retinoic acid binding protein

(its a morphogen sink)
What are Surface Receptor Mediated Regulation
Growth factors

Secreted Morphogens
-Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) binds to a surface receptor ?

This causes a release of Surface Protein ? to activate signal transduction

Activates Transcription factor ? within the nucleus
Patched (Ptc)

Smoothened (Smo)

Gli (transcription factor)
Why is Sonic hedgehog (Shh) important?
Neural Tube Formation

limb development

left-right sidedness

GI tract

feather/hair formation
? bind to the receptor mediates signal transduction

Activates ? in the nucleus
Growth Factors

Transcription factors
What are the function of Growth Factors?
Induce or Inhibit growth/differentiation of local populations of cells in which specific receptors have been induced.

Promote both cell growth and programed cell death (apoptosis)
Give examples of Transforming growth Factor β
Bmps ---> apoptosis of cells :: prevents webbing from occurring in fingers

Gdf
What inhibits Bmp?

This causes webbing between fingers to occur.
Gremlin
Important organizing and patterning factors that have also been linked to TUMORIGENESIS.
Wnt proteins

(growth factor)
Increased levels of Wnt proteins may be an indicator of?
Tumorigenesis

tumor growth
True or False

Many molecules exist that modify the TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION of the ways that molecules regulate cell commitment and development
True
True or False

If anything goes wrong with one of the MODIFYING FACTORS in a pathway MUTATION WILL ALWAYS OCCUR
True
True or False

Enzymes are most involved with FUNCTION OF DIFFERENTIATED CELL rather than MORPHOLOGY.
True
What is the effect of Collagen and Proteoglycans in cell differentiation?
Forms connective tissue scaffolding

Helps with Cell Migration
True or False

Many of the developmentally important molecules are used MULTIPLE TIMES in development for morphogenesis of different body parts.
True

ex: Shh is critical for Neural tube formation and differentiation, limb development patterning, and establishment of hair follicles.
How is Shh expression regulated?
multiple enhancer elements respond to SITE SPECIFIC and STAGE SPECIFIC cues.
? describes the capacity of one cell or tissue to influence other cells.
Induction