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68 Cards in this Set

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What is Anatomy?
Branch of science that deals with the study of the structure of body parts and forms (arrangement)
What is Physiolgy
The study of the function of the bodies organs (what do they do, and how do they do it?)
Morphology
Study of the structure or shape of the bodies organs
What are the five environmental factors needed for life?
1. Water
2. Food
3. Oxygen
4. Heat
5. Pressure
Define #1
Water
 Chemical Substance
 Most abundant substance in body
 Aids in Metabolic Processes (provides environment)
 Transports substances (within organisms)
 Regulates body temperature
Define #2
Food
 Provides necessary chemicals(nutrients)
 Supply chemical Energy
 Material for building new matter
Define #3
Oxygen
 Gas
 Constitutes 1/5 of Air
 Required in the process of releasing energy from nutrients
 Drive metabolic processes
Define #4
Heat
 Form of Energy by products of metabolism
 Regulates rates of metabolic reactions
 Measured by temperature
Define #5
Pressure
 Application of force
 Important in breathing
 Atmospheric Pressure – Experienced on land due to weight of air
 Hydrostatic Pressure- Experienced in water due to weight of water
 Blood Pressure – pressure for forcing blood through blood vessels
What broad thin muscle separates the thoracic cavity from the lower abdominopelvic cavity?
The diaphragm which when at rest curves upward into the thorax like a dome
The serous membranes secrete a slippery serous fluid that separates which layers?
The layer lining the wall (parietal layer) from the layer covering the organ (visceral layer)
What organs are in the Central Nervous System?
Spine and Brain
What cavity does the central nervous system lie in?
Dorsal Cavity
What is the top of the tongue known as?
Doral/Dorsum
What does the ending itis mean?
Inflamation
The prefix Epi mean?
On the surface of
What does the ending ose imply?
Sugar
What is diffusion?
Where a higher concentration flows to a lower concentration
What does the ending stasis entail?
The same
What are the 9 levels of organization?
1.Atom
2.Molecule
3.Macromolecule
4.Organelle
5.Cell
6.Tissue
7.Organ
8.Organ System
9.Organism
Define #1
Atom – small invisible particle of an element that has the properties of that element
Define #2
Molecule – two or more atoms bound together
Define # 3
Macromolecule – larger molecule
Define # 4
Organelle – in cells and carry on specific activities composed of macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids)
Define #5
Cell –basic unit of structure and function of an organism
Define #6
Tissue – layer or mass of cells grouped together that have a common function
Define #7
Organ – groups of different tissues groups (complex structure/ specialized functions)
Define #8
Organ System – group of organs that function closely together
Define #9
Organism - Interacting organ systems
What are the characteristics of Animal Life?
Movement
Responsiveness
Growth
Reproduction
Respiration
Digestion
Absorption
Circulation
Assimilation
Excretion
Define #1
Movement – Change in position of body or body part
Define #2
Responsiveness – Reaction to change taking place (inside or outside)
Define #3
Growth – Increase in body size without change in shape
Define #4
Reproduction – Production of new organisms and new cells
Define # 5
Respiration – Obtaining oxygen, using oxygen in releasing energy from foods and removing carbon dioxide
Define # 6
Digestion – Breaking down food into simpler forms that can be used
Define #7
Absorption – Passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids
Define #8
Circulation - movement of substances from place to place in body fluids
Define #9
Assimilation – Changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms
Define #10
Excretion – removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions
What is Anatomical Position?
Stand erect, the face forward, with the upper limps at the sides, and palms are facing anteriorly (forward)
What controls the temperature of the body making sure that is stay at the set point of 98.6° F (37° C)?
The homeostatic mechanism located in the hypothalamus
The human body is divided into what two portions?
An Axial and an Appendicular Portion
What body parts does the Axial Portion contain?
Head, neck, trunk
What body parts does the Appendicular Portion contain?
Upper and lower limbs
What are the two major cavities located within the axial portion?
A dorsal cavity and a larger ventral cavity
Define Vicera
The organs that are located in cavities such as the dorsal and ventral cavities
What two parts can the dorsal cavity are subdivided into?
Cranial Cavity (houses the brain), and the vertebral canal (spinal cavity) which contains the spinal cord and is surrounded by sections of the back-bone (vertebrae)
What two cavities comprise the ventral cavity?
Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Cavity
What does the diaphragm do during inhalation?
It contracts and presses down upon the abdominal vicera
What is the wall of the thoracic cavity composed of?
Skin, skeletal muscles, and bones
Define Mediastinum
Tissues and organs including the remaining thoracic vicera-heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland that form a spectrum between the two compartments that contain the right and left lungs
Define Abdominal Cavity
The space between the diaphragm and the pelvic inlet that contains the abdominal viscera
What organs are in the abdominal vicera?
Stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and the small and large intestines
Where does the abdominal cavity which includes a lower pelvic portion and an upper abdominal portion start and stop?
It extends from the floor of the diaphragm to the floor of the pelvis
Define pelvic cavity
Portion of the abdominopelvic cavity enclosed by the pelvic bones which contains the terminal end of the large intestine, the urinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs
What other smaller cavities are located within the head?
Oral Cavity
Nasal Cavity
Orbital Cavities
Middle Ear Cavities
What organs are located in #1?
Oral Cavity: Contains teeth and tongue
Where is #2 located?
Nasal Cavity: Located within the nose and divided into right and left portions by a nasal septum.
What are connected to #2?
Several air-filled sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity
Give an example of an air-filled sinus
These include the sphenoidal and frontal sinuses
What organs do #3 contain?
Orbital Cavities: Contain the eyes and associated skeletal muscles and nerves
What organs do #4 contain?
Middle Ear Cavities: Contain the middle ear bones
What are the serous membranes?
Membranes that line a cavity without an opening to the outside of the body and fold back to cover the organs within these cavities
What organ does the word Pleural pertain to?
Lung
Define Plural membranes
Serous membranes that enclose the lungs
What membranes surround the heart?
Pericardial Membranes
What are the membranes called in the Abdominopelvic cavity?
Peritoneal Membranes