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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the branches of the external
carotid artery.
Superior thyroid, lingual, facial, posterior
auricular, occipital, ascending pharyngeal,
maxillary, and superficial temporal...remember Superman And Louis Fly On Plante Mars Sometimes (see N34).
What are the functions of the carotid
sinus and the carotid body?
The carotid sinus is a receptor which responds to
increased blood pressure. The carotid body is a
receptor that responds to chemical changes in the
blood, particularly decreased oxygen...remember Sinus=baroreceptor and Body=chemoreceptor
Locate the cell bodies of the afferent
nerve fibers which supply the carotid sinus.
In the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal
Name the structures innervated by
the internal and external branches
of the superior laryngeal nerve.
The internal branch supplies the mucous membrane
of the larynx (so = afferent fibers w/cell bodies in the inf. nodose gang of X). The external branch innervates the
cricothyroid muscle (so efferent to skeletal musc from the nucleus ambiguous)...also you probably know but just in case we are talking about CN 10.
How do postganglionic sympathetic
fibers get into the head? Where are
their cell bodies located?
In the head postganglionic sympathetic fibers travel
along blood vessels from the sympathtic trunk. Their cell bodies are located
in the superior cervical ganglion.
What is Horner's syndrome?
Horner's syndrome is the collection of clinical
signs produced by injury to the cervical
sympathetic trunk. On the affected side of the head
there is ptosis (due to paralysis of the superior
tarsal muscle), constriction of the pupil (due to
paralysis of the dilator of the pupil), and red, warm,
and dry skin (due to vasodilation and lack of
Name the type of nerve fibers found in the phrenic nerve and for each give the location of its cell bodies of origin. How does the composition of fibers
in the phrenic nerve affect where pain from the center of the diaphragm is
1st, remember the phrenic nerve comes from the cervical plexus and c3,4,5 contribute fibers (see N32 for pict). So...aff--dorsal root ganglia cervical nerves 3, 4,
and 5. Eff to skel muscle--ventral gray
column of cervical spinal cord. Postganglionic
efferent--superior and middle cervical ganglia.
Pain is "referred" to the base of the neck and
shoulders which are supplied with cutaneous
innervation by the same levels of the cervical
spinal cord (C3, C4).
What is the result of destruction of
the phrenic nerve?
Paralysis of the diaphragm on the same side of the
body (no bueno!!).
Name the branches of the subclavian
Internal thoracic, vertebral, thyrocervical trunk,
costocervical trunk, and sometimes the transverse
cervical artery or dorsal scapular artery...but the transverse cervical can come off the thyrocervical trunk in some pt. and then it splits and the dorsal scapular art. is one of its branches(as if just having to learn one version is not enought...there seems to be a lot of variation b/t diff people! (see N 33 for pict).
What important arterial anastomoses
occur in the region of the thyroid gland?
On each side the inferior thyroid artery
anastomoses with the superior thyroid artery. This
anastomosis joins the subclavian with the external
carotid and permits blood to enter the head when
the common carotid is occluded (see N 75). Also the right
superior thyroid and inferior thyroid arteries
anastomose across the midline with the same
arteries from the left side.
What types of fibers pass throught the gray rami connecting the superior cervical ganglion to the cervical nerves and where do they terminate?
Post gang sym fibers, terminating on smooth musc( like blood vess in the neck and upper members)and glands (like sweat glands in the skin of the neck or upper members).
How is the inferior thyroid artery
related to the recurrent laryngeal nerve?
The relationship is variable. The nerve may cross
either the main artery or its branches, and it may
pass posterior or anterior to the artery or between
its two major branches. This close relationship
causes the nerve to be subject to injury during
surgery (see N75).
In general terms, what structures does
the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervate?
Intrinsic muscles of the larynx with the exception
of the cricothyroid muscle.
Why are the superior parathyroids
called parathyroids IV and the inferior
parathyroids called parathyroids III?
The superior parathyroids are derived from the
fourth branchial pouch, while the inferior
parathyroids are derived from the third branchial
What is a thyroidea ima artery?
The thyroidea ima is an abnormal artery to the
thyroid gland from the brachiocephalic trunk. Note the inf. thyroid art usually branches from the subclavian distal to the branching of the carotid, a thyroidea ima branches earlier than this- it can be directly from the c. carotid or from the brachiocephalic trunk proximal to the carotid's branching or it may also arise from the aorta. Once it makes its weird branching from whereever, it ascends ventral to the trachea to the inferior part of the thyroid gland (for a refernece w/o a picture of the ima see N75-it just gives an image of where it could arise from).
How are the following structures related to the anterior scalene muscle: trunks of the brachial plexus?
phrenic nerve? subclavian vein? subclavian artery? thoracic duct?
The trunks of the brachial plex can be found just post. to the ant. scalene, b/t it and the middle scalene. The phrenic nerve emmerges from the cervical plex b/t the ant. and middle scalene and then rides superficial to the ant scalen, usually traveling medially until the ant.scalen inserts into the 1st rib, where the phrenic nerve cont. down to the diaphram on medial to the ant. scalene (see N 189 for image). The subclav. vein is found ant. to the ant. scalene and the subclav. ary is found just post to it, b/t the ant. scalene and the middle scalene. The thoracic duct joins the subclavian artery anterior to the ant. scalene.
So from front to back it is the thoracic duct and subclav vein, the the phrenic nerve ontop of the musc, then the musc, then the subclav artery and brachial plex, and then the middle scalene (see N189).
What is the scalenus anterior syndrome? What collateral circulation is available for a subclavian
artery constricted behind the anterior scalene muscle?
Pain and tingleing in the hand and forearm, caused by compression of the brach. plexus and subclav art by an overdeveloped or hypotrphied ant. scalene musc. Collateral circulation is supplied from the arterial network of the neck.