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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the four anatomic planes and sections and explain their direction.
Median: midline, divides body into right and left halves
Sagittal: body into right and left parts
Coronal/Frontal:body into front/back
Transverse/Cross: body into upper and lower halves
Name the twelve systems of the body.
Integumentary, Muscular, Nervous, Cardiovascular, Immune, Lymphatic, Skeletal/Articular, Respiratory, Reproductive, Endocrine, Digestive, Urinary
Name the closed body cavities.
Cranial, Vertebral, Thoracic, Abdominopelvic
Name the open visceral cavities.
Respiratory Tract, Digestive Tract, Urinary Tract
What separates thoracic cavity into right and left halves?
Four types of tissue.
Epithelium, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Name the four types of simple epithelium and where it's located.
Squamous: line heart and blood vessels, air cells, body cavities
Cuboidal: glands, tubules of kidney, terminal bronchioles of lungs, ducts of reproductive tracts
Columnar: gastrointestinal tract- absorption/secretion
Pseudostratified Columnar: line reproductive and respiratory tracts
Name the two stratified epithelium and location.
Stratified squamous: skin (keratinized), oral cavity, pharynx, vocal folds, esophagus, vagina, anus
Transitional: bladder
Name the two glandular epithelium and location.
Exocrine: sweat, sebaceous, pancreatic, mammary glands
Endocrine: endocrine glands (thyroid)
Name the four types of fibrous connective tissues and location.
Loose, areolar c.t. : found deep to epithelial tissues of mucous and serous membranes of hollow organs
Adipose c.t.: superficial fasciae-breast, buttock, anterior ab. wall, arm, thigh, yellow marow, surface of serous membranes
Dense regular c.t.: ligmanets and tendons
Dense Irregular c.t.: joints, envelop muscle tissue, dermis of the skin, encapsulate certain visceral organs
Name the three types of cartilage and location.
Fibrocartilage: intervertebral disc
Elastic Carilage: ear, epiglottis
Hyaline Cartilage: cevering at bone ends
Bone sheath.
A chondrocyte is surrounded by a?
Name the phases of cell division.
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What lines each closed body cavity?
Cranial: Dura Mater
Vertebral: Dura Mater
Thoracic: Pleura
Abdominopelvic: Peritoneum
How many nuclei do each of the three types of muscle have?
skeletal- multinucleated
cardiac- one or two centrally located
smooth- multinucleated, centrally located
What are the three types of mucle covered by?
sacrolemma- skeletal,cardiac
plasmalemma- smooth
Describe the makeup of a sacromere.
M-line: midline through myosin
Z-line: ends of sacromere
A band: all mysoin
H band: myosin, no actin
I band: all actin
What cells are used to create myelin in PNS and CNS?
PNS: schwann cells
CNS: oligodendrocytes
What are microglia?
small scavenger cells of the brain and spinal cord
The outer layer of somatic structure is?
skin- epithelial tissue, specifically stratifies squamous epithelial tissue
Deeper layers of skin, such as bone, ligament, superficial and deep fascia are what type of tissue?
connective tissue.
What type of tissue lines the lumen of visceral structures?
the mucosal lining is epithelial tissue
What type of muscle is within visceral structure- how many layers?
smooth muscle, one or two layers
Thick filament of muscle?
Thin filament of muscle?
Name the five layers of the epidermis, starting from the outside.
Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale
Which layer of the epidermis is sometimes absent, and where is it present?
Stratum lucidum- present in glaborous (hair-deficient) thick skin
How do the layers of epithelia receive their nutrition?
by diffusion
What is the deepest layer of the epidermis made up of?
a single layer of mitotic keratinocytes that are columnar or cuboidal epithelia
A nail is which layer of the epidermis? A nail bed?
nail- stratum corneum
nail bed- stratum basale and spinosum
The dermis and epidermis are separated by?
a basement membrane called the epidermal-dermal junction
What are the layers of the dermis and what are they characterized by?
papillary layer: characterized by a vascular, loose connective tissue
reticular layer: dense fibrous character
What is a hair shaft composed of?
layers of keratin surrounded by layers of follicular cells
What muscle pulls the hair perpendicular to the skin? What kind of muscle is it?
arrector pili muscle- smooth muscle
What two glands are located within the dermis?
sebaceous glands and sweat glands
What covers the ends of bones?
articular (hyaline) cartilage
What are the ends of bones called? The shaft?
ends: epiphysis
shaft: diaphysis
What type of bone makes up the ends of long bones, the shaft?
end: cancellous (spongy)
shaft: compact
What is the cavity of the diaphysis called?
medullary cavity
What kind of marrow is involved in hematopoiesis?
The axial skeleton is composed of? appendicular?
axial: skull, vertebrae, ribs, hyoid bone
appendicular: pectoral and pelvic girdles, bones of arms, legs, hands, feet
What's another name for joints?
Classification of joints:
immovable: ?
partly movable: ?
freely movable: ?
What are the six types of synovial joints and an example?
ball and socket: shoulder
hinge: elbow (humeroulnar)
saddle (sellar): base of the thumb
ellipsoidal:wrist (radiocarpal)
pivot: C1 verebra
gliding:inecarpal and intetarsal joints
Give an example of a fibrous joint? cartilaginous joint?
fibrous: sutures of the skull
carilaginous: intervertebral disc (partially movable)
Name the cranial bones
Occipital, Temporal, Parietal, Frontal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid
Name the facial bones.
2 Nasal, Vomer, 2 Lacrimal, 2 Zygomatic, 2 Palatine, 2 Maxilla, Mandible, 2 Inferior Nasal Concha
Name the three sutures seen from the superior view of the skull.
Coronal, sagittal, lambdoidal
The place where the spinal cord passes through.
Foramen magnum, or the great foramen
TMJ stands for? and is what type of joint?
temporomandibular joint - synovial joint
What divides the TMJ into superior and inferior joint spaces? It's made of?
Articular disc- fibrocartilaginous
Name the regions of the vertebral column and the number of vertebrae in each.
Cervical- 7
Thoracic- 12
Lumbar- 5
Sacral- 1-5 (fused)
Thoracic spine disorder?
Lumbar spine disorder?
C1 is also known as the ? allows for what type of movement? C2 is also known as? allows for what type of movement?
C1: atlas- no movement
C2: axis- yes movement
The vertebral artery passes through what in the cervical spine?
transverse foramen
Ribs form what kind of joint with the vertebrae? Which parts of the vertebrae are involved?
synovial joint, two demifacets on the bodies of adjacent vertebrae and a single facet on the transverse process of the lower vertebra
The three natural curves of the spine are called?
cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis
What are the five ligaments that help hold the vertebrae in place?
anterior longitudinal lig., posterior longitudinal lig., ligamentum flavum, interspinous lig., supraspinous lig.
At L1 the spinal cord terminates and the ? begins?
cauda equina (bundle of lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots)
The sacrum consists of how many fused vertebrae?
The sacral canal contains what?
the terminal sac of the dura mater to S2, and the sacral nerve roots
What does the coccyx consist of?
2-4 tiny individual or partly fused vertebrae
What are the three parts of the sternum, and what are the joints in between?
manubrium- sternomanubrial joint- body- xiphisternal joint- xyphoid process
What is the sternum made of?
cancellous bone containing red marrow
What type of joints do the ribs make with the sternum? with the thoracic vertebrae?
both are synovial except the first (sternocostal joints andcostovertebral joints)
Which ribs join only to one vertebrae?
1, 10, 11, 12
Which ribs are true? which false? which floating?
1-7, 8-10, 11-12
The costochondral joint joins what two things?
costal cartilage, ribs
What is the only bony connection of the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton? What type of joint?
Sternoclavicular joint- saddle type; synovial with articular disc
What is the joint between the clavicle and scapula? What type of joint is it?
acromioclavicular joint- AC joint- gliding type synovial with articular disc
What is the joint between the humerus and scapula? What type of joint is it?
glenohumeral joint- ball and socket
What is the spot in which the head of the humerus sits in the scapula?
glenoid fossa
What deepens the shallow glenoid fossa?
glenoid labrum
The ulna is characterized by a large proximal bone mass called the ?
What two parts of the humerus and ulna articulate at the humeroulnar joint? What type of joint is it?
trochlear notch of the ulna, and the trochlea of the humerus- synovial joint; hinge
The radius and ulna form what joint at the radial notch? Type of joint?
proximal raioulnar joint, synovial; pivot
The radius and ulna form what joint at the wrist? Type of joint?
disal radioulnar joint, synovial; pivot
The shaft of the ulna forms a movable, fibrous joint ( ? ) with the shaft of the radius by means of what?
syndesmosis, interosseous membrane
What parts of the humerus and radius articulate in the radiohumeral joint? What type of joint?
capitulum of the humerus, radial head- synovial joint; pivot
Where is a common place for fractures in the radius? What's it called?
at the waist between the shaft and the flared distal extremity
Colles fracture, smith fracture
Movements of the elbow joint are?
flexion and extension