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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anatomy
the scientific stydy of the structure or morphology of organisms
gross human anatomy
large structures of the human body that can be seen through normal dissection
microscopic anatomy
smaller structures and fine detail that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope
physiology
study of the functions or processes of living things
cytology
study of cellular structure
histology
study of tissues
levels organization
chemical, cell, tissues, organs, body system, organism
11 organ systems
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, lymphatic, urinary, reproductive, respiratory, digestive
integumentary
skin and various accessory organs associated with it
skeletal
framework of body; protects underlying organs
muscular
made up of muscles
nervous
brain, spinal cord, associated nerves
endocrine
includes all the glands that secrete chemicals called hormones
cardiovascular
blood, heart, blood vessels
lymphatic
a series of vessels that transport fluid (lymph) from the tissues back into the blood
digestive
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines; all make up digestive tract
respiratory
brings in oxygen, removes carbon dioxide
urinary
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra; removes waste materials esp nitrogenous waste
reproductive
consists of gonads
life processes
organization, metabolism, responsiveness, movement, reproduction, growth, differentiation, respiration, digestion, excretion
growth
increase in cell number and size
organization
division of labor; takes place after differentiation
differentiation
look the same but then become special in appearance; structure changes function
excretion
getting rid of waste
digestion
breaks down macromolecules, simplifies them into building blocks; absorption: take nutrients and put into blood
movement
muscle contraction/joints; blood/fluid (lymph)
diffusion
high to low; oxygen goes into air sack and diffuses into capillaries
reproduction
cellular level (mitosis)and sexual level
metabolism
total of all chem rxns that occur in body
catabolism
complex -> simple; NRG is released
anabolism
simple -> complex; nrg needed
respiration
exchange of gases between environment and cells
ventilation
inhale and exhale
cell respiration
oxygen diffuses from capillary into body cell, co2 diffuses from cell into cap.
responsiveness
ability to detect a change and respond; stimulus - response
5 physical factors
(H2OPN): water, pressure, nutrients, heat, oxygen
heat
functions best at body temp, need heat for chem rxns
water
chem rxns, transports, body temp
oxygen
cell respiration
pressure
atmospheric: pushes O2 in; hydrostatic: blood pressure
nutrients
carbs are primary source of nrg, lipids are second
homeostasis
maintain constant equillibrium with environment
stressor
anything that disrupts homeostasis can be internal or external
negative feedback
brings back to normal by acting in opposite way (bld glucose levels)
positive feedback
quick; magnifies stressor and causes it to stop (blood clotting)
superior
closer to head (opp is inferior)
inferior
farther from head
anterior
front (opp is posterior)
posterior
back
medial
nearer the midline
superficial
near the surface (opp is deep)
proximal
closer to the trunk (opp is distal)
visceral
covers organs (opp is parietal: covers cavities)
sagittal plane
right and left portions (midsagittal: halves)
transverse plane
superior and inferior
frontal or coronal plane
anterior and posterior
name the body cavities
dorsal: spinal, cranial
ventral: thorasic, abdominopelvic (abdominal and pelvic)
nine regions of abdominopelvic
umbilical, epigastric, hypogastric, R/L hypochondriac, R/L iliac, R/L lumbar
regions of the body
axial: head neck trunk, appendicular: limbs, torso: trunk