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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
afferent neurons
nerve cells that carry impulses toward the central nervous system
autonomic nervous system
the division of the nervous system that functions involuntarily; innervates cardiac muscle, smooth msucle, and glands.
axon
neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body; efferent processes; the conduction portion of a nerve cell
brain stem
the portion of the brain containing the medulla, pons, and midbrain
central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord
cerebellum
part of the hindbrain; involved in producing smoothly coordinated skeletal muscle activity
cerebral hemispheres
the most superior part of the brain, overshadows other three parts of the brain
cerebrospinal fluid
the fluid produced in the cerebral ventricles and surrounds the central nervous system
dendrites
the branching extensions of neurons that carry electrical signals to the cell body; the receptive portion of a nerve cell
depolarization
the loss of a state of polarity; the loss of a negative charge inside the plasma membrane
efferent neurons
neurons that conduct impulses away from the central nervous system
ganglion
a group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system
gray matter
the gray area of the CNS; contains unmyelinated nerve fibers and nerve cell bodies
interneurons
AKA: association neurons; completes the pathway between afferent and efferent neurons
meninges
the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
myelin
a white, fatty lipid substance
nerve
bundle of neuron processes (axons) outside the CNS
neuroglia
the nonneuronal tissue of the CNS that performs supportive and other funcitons; also called glia
neurons
cells of the nervous system specialized to transmit messages throughout the body
nodes of Ranvier
the regular indentations or gaps between the myelin sheath
peripheral nervous system
a system of nerves that connects the outlying parts of the body with the central nervous system
plexus
a network of inerlacing nerves, blood vessels, or lymphatics
polarization
the action in which a neuron or muscle cell becomes unstimulated; the inside of the cell is relatively negative in comparison to the outside. THE RETURN TO THE RESTING STATE
receptor
1) a peripheral nerve ending specialized for response to particular types of stimuli; 2) molecule that binds specifically with other molecules, e.g., hormones and neurotransmitters
reflex
automatic reaction to a stimulus
repolarization
the outflow of positive ions from the cell, restoring the electrical conditions at the membrane to the polarized, or resting, state. (RETURNING TO THE RESTING STATE TO FIRE A NEW PIECE OF INFORMATION)
somatic nervous system
a division of the nervous system; also called the voluntary nervous system.
synapse
the region of communication between neurons
tracts
collections of nerve fibers in the CNS having the same origin, termination, and function.
white matter
white substance of the central nervous system; the myelinated nerve fibers