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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
health
physiacal, spiritual, mental and social well being. Not meerly the absence of disease.
disease
abnormality in body functions that threatens well being
sign
an objective abnormality that can be seen or measured by someone other than the patient
symptom
a subjective abnormality that is experiencd only by the patient
syndrome
a collection of different signs and symptoms that present a clear picture of a spesific problem
acute
when signs and symptoms apear suddenly, persist for a short time, and then subside
chronic
a disease that develops slowly and lasts for a long time. (chronic conditions can begin with acute injuries)
etiology
study of all factors that can cause a disease
idiopathic
a disease with an unknown cause
communicateicable
a disease that can be transmitted from one person to another
pathogenisis
the pattern of how a particular disease develops
steps of pathogenisis
1)latent- "hidden stage AKA incubation
2)manifestation- the disease makes itself known
3)convalescence- recovery
Remission
when the disease exhibits a temporary reversal that seems to be a recovery
epidemiology
study of the occurence, distribution, and transmission of disease in human populations
endemic
diseases that are native to a particular geographial region
epidemic
when a disease affects many people at the same time
pandemic
a disease affecting large geographical regions in many parts of the world
pathophysicology
the study of the understanding physiological processes associated with disease.
mutations
a change in the genetic code;most are caused by mutagens> agents like chemicals, radiation, and viruses.
chromosomal defects
trisomy; down syndrome,
single-gene disorders
hemophillia, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia
viruses
intracellular paracites that consist of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat and sometimes a limpoprotein envelope; influenza, mono, epstein baar virus
bacteria
primitive oragnisms with no nuclei, secrete toxins, overwhelm the body with colonies that impair normal function; strep, bacterial pheumonia
fungi
simmilar to plants but no chlorophyll (can't make their own food) must parasitize other organisms like athlete's foot; san Joaquin valley fever
Fungal infections
mycoses
protozoa
one-celled organisms; amebic dysentery; giardiasis; trichomoniasis
nematodes
round worms - enterobius; pinworm infestation in the lower GI tract causing rectal itching and insomnia
platyhelmints
flatworms or flukes. EX. Taenia- pork and beef tapeworm
arthropods
mites, ticks, lice, fleas, wasps, bees, spiders
Benign tumors characteristics are
slow growth, encapsulation, expand but don't spread, well differentiated, morality low
malignant cancer characteristics are
rapid growth, non-encapsulation, infultrate durrounding tissue, metastasizes, undifferentiated, morality high
Benign tumors that arise from epithelial tissue
papilloma- a fingerlike projection(wart)

Adenoma- benign tumor of glandular epithilial tissue

Nevus- small pigmented tumors of the skin
Benign tumors that arise from connective tissue
lipoma- fatty tumor(under the skin)

osteoma- bone tumor

chondroma- cartilage tumor
malignant tumors that arise from epithilial tissue are called ?
Carcinomas
malignant tumors that arise from epithilial tissue
Melanoma- malignancy of the melanin producing cells of the skin

Adenocarcinoma- malignant tumors of glandular epithilial
Malignant tumors that arise from connective tissue are called ?
Sarcomas
Malignant tumors that arise from connective tissue
lymphoma- cancer of the lymphatic tissue (HOdgkins)

osteosarcoma- of bone

myeloma- bone marrow

fibro sarcoma- fiborous connective tissue
neuroblastoma
malignancy of the nuerons
multifome Glioma
most common brain tumor in adults
factors known to play a role in causing cancer
1) genetic- 'oncogenes' skin; breast; colon
2) carcinogens- chemicals affectig genetic activity: petroleum, by -products, pestisides
3) age all cancers increse in insidence with age
4)viruses- human papiloma virus in cervical cancer
5)molds- aflatoxin- one of the most powerful carcinogens known that occurs in peanuts and corn.
Ways in which we detect cancer
1)self exam- breast, moles, testes etc.
2)dignostic imaging- MRI;CT scan; X-RAY
3)Lab tests
4) biopsy: microscopic evaluation of the tumor.
staging
classifying tumors by size and extent of metastisis
gradeing
assessing the likely pattern of a tumors development
the cause of cancer deaths is usually ?
secondary infection; organ ailure; hemorrhage
cachexia
the syndrome asssociated with the late stages of cancer involving weight loss and weakness.
treatment
1)surgery- removel of the tumor
2)chemotherapy- cytotoxic chemicals
3)radiation- pinpoint beams of radiation aimed at the tumor
4)laser therapy
5)immunotherapy- stimulating the immune system
6)nutrition, acupuncture, herbology, homeopathy
7)new drugs- great; Endostatin- cutting off blood supply to tumors
8 warning signs of cancer
1)sore that does not heal
2)a change in a wart or mole
3)unusual bleeding
4)chronic hoarseness or cough
5)chronic indegestion
6)change in bladder or bowel habits
7)a lump or thickening in any tissue
8)bone pain that wakes you up at night
top 10 anti-cancer foods
1)tomatoes
2)blueberries
3)red cabage and beets
4)spinich
5)garlic
6)whole grains
7)oranges
8)strawberries
9)beans
10)colorful foods
autoimmunity
A misdirected immune response that occurs when the immune system goes awry and attacks the body itself.
.EXAMPLES;
a)Chrohn's Disease
b)Diabetes
c)multiple sclerosis
d)rheumatoid Arthritus
e)Lupus
*Treatments are limited to symptomatic relief.
Degenerative diseases
a disease in which the function or structure of the affected tissues or organs will progressively
deteriorate over time,
whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices
EXAMPLES:1)alzheimers
2)Lou Gehrigs disease
3)Diabetes type 2
4)heart disease
5)Parkinson's
6)Osteoporosis
7)osteoarthritis