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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Weight of skin?
9 to 11 pounds
Thickness of skin?
1.5 to 4.0 mm
Composition of skin?
Pliable yet tough
Epidermis
Above dermis, non-vascularized
Dermis
Vascularized
Hypodermis
Mostly adipose or areolar connective tissues.
What is the epidermis?
Stratified squamous epithelium
Keratinocytes
Produce keratin.
Melanocytes
Synthesize melanin.
Langerhans cells
(Epidermal Dendritic Cells) that arises from bone marrow.
Merkel cells
At the Epidermal-dermal junction and function as a sensory receptor for touch.
Where Thick Skin is found?
On palms and fingertips.
Five layers of the epidermis?
1. Stratum Basale
2. Spinosum
3. Granulosum
4. Lucidium
5. Corneum
Which layer of the epidermis is not present in thin skin?
The lucidium layer.
Stratum Basale
Deepest layer (basement).
Stratum Spinosum
(Several) layers thick.
Stratum Granulosum
Thin layer, 3-5 layers.
Keratohyaline granules?
Contributes to keratin aggregation.
Lamellated granules?
Contain a waterproofing glycolipid which reduces water loss across epidermis.
Stratum Lucidium?
Thin band, consists of dead keratinocytes. Only in thick skin.
Stratum Corneum?
Outermost layer, 20-30 cell layers thick. Keratin and thicken plasma membranes protect skin against abrasion. Average person sheds 18 kg or 40 lbs. in a lifetime.
Papillary layer?
Thin, superficial layer of connective tissue.
Dermal Papillae?
Contains capillaries, nerve endings, and touch receptors.
Papillae?
In hands and feet, these lie atop dermal ridges, which produce whorled ridges (fingerprints.)
Reticular Layer?
Deep layer, about 80% of dermal layer.
Blister?
Seperation of epidermal and dermal layers by a fluid filled pocket.
Flexure lines
Dermal folds.
Melanin
Yellow to reddish-brown to black.
Carotene
Orange pigment.
Hemoglobin
Pinkish hue of fair skin.
Cyanosis
Skin appears blue due to lack of oxygen circulation.
Erythema
Reddened skin (blushing).
Pallor
Emotional stress, people become pale.
Jaundice
Abnormal yellow skin color that signifies a liver disorder.
Bronzing
Metallic appearance of skin (Addison's Disease) which is caused by a hypofunction of the adrenal cortex.
Bruises
Blood escaped from circulation and clots beneath skin.
Sweat Glands
All over body except on nipples or external genitalia. Approx. 2.5 million per person.
Eccrine Sweat Glands
Abundant on the palms, soles, and forehead.
Sweat
Composed of 99% water.
Apocrine Sweat Glands
Only in axillary and anogenital areas.
Ceruminous Glands
Modified apocrine glands found in lining of extermal ear canal.
Cerumen
Earwax.
Sebaceous Glands
Simple alveolar glands found all over the body except on palms and soles.
Main Function of Hair and Hair Follicles?
To sense insects before we get stung.
Function of Hair on Scalp?
To guard head against physical trauma, heat loss, and sunlight.
Pili
Flexible strands produced by hair follicles consisting of keratinocytes.
Shaft
Region of hair which projects from the skin.
Root
Region of hair embedded in skin.
Medulla
Central core.
Cortex
Bulky layer surrounding the medulla, has several layers of flattened cells.
Cuticle
Single layer of cells that overlap (like shingles on a roof).
Hair Follicles
Extend from the epidermal surface into the dermis.
Hair Bulb
Deepest part of follicle.
Root Hair Plexus
Sensory nerve endings.
Papilla
Provides nutrients to the growing hair.
Connective Tissue Root Sheath
Derived from the dermis.
Epithelial Root Sheath
Derived from an invagination of the epidermis.
Hair Matrix
Actively dividing area of the hair bulb.
Arrector Pili
Allows hair to stand straight up.
Number of Hairs on the Scalp?
About 100,000
Vellus
Hair that is fine, pale; usually in children and adult females (Peach Fuzz)
Terminal
Hair that is coarser, thicker.
Alopecia
Hair thinning and some baldness. Happens later in life.
Male Pattern Baldness
Genetics.
Nail
A scalelike modification of the epidermis that forms on the dorsal side of fingers or toes.
Free Edge
Tip of Nail.
Body
Visible attached portion of nail.
Proximal Root
Part of nail that is embedded in skin.
Nail Matrix
Part that is responsible for nail growth.
Lunula
Lies over matrix of nail.
Nail Folds
Proximal and lateral boarders of nail.
Cuticle
Area folded onto body of nail.
First Degree Burn
Epidermis is damaged. Localized redness, swelling, and pain. Heal in two to three days; sunburn.
Second Degree Burn
Injure the epidermis and the upper region of the dermis. Heal in three to four weeks.
Third Degree Burn
Involves the entire thickness of the skin.
Skin Grafting?
Rejection by body.
Benign
Non-cancerous.
Malignant
Invade other body areas.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Most Common Skin Cancer.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Arises from the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum.
Malignant Melanoma
Cancer of melanocytes; Most Dangerous Skin Cancer.
ABCD Rule
Asymmetry= Sides don't match.
Border Irregularity= Borders aren't smooth.
Color= Many Colors.
Diameter= Larger than 6mm.
Skin is formed.
Happens by the fourth month of development?
Fetus is covered with a downy coat of delicate hairs called the lanugo coat.
So significant during the 5-6 months of development?
Vernix Caseosa
Protects the fetus's skin.
Rate of epidermal cell replacement slows, the skin thins, and its susceptibility to bruises and other types of injury increases.
What happens during old age?
Skeletal
System which provides support for the skin.
Muscular
System that helps skin protect muscles.
Nervous
System that helps protect nervous system organs.
Endocrine
System that converts some hormones to their active forms.
Cardiovascular
System that prevents fluid loss from body.
Immune
System that prevents pathogen invasion.
Respiratory
System that removes carbon dioxide via gas exchange with blood.
Digestive
System that provides needed nutrients to the skin.
Urinary
System that excretes salts and some nitrogenous wastes in sweat.
Reproductive
System in which highly modified sweat glands produce milk.