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114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cytology
the study of cell structure and function
squamous cells
thin flat, and often have angular contours when viewed from above. esophagus and cover the skin
Polygonal cells
irregularly angular shapes with four, five, or more sides.nerve cells
Stellate cells
star like shape. nerve cells
Cuboidal cells
cells are squarish and approximately as tall as they are wide. liver cells
Columnar cells
taller than they are wider cells and line the intestines
Spheroid to ovoid
egg cells and fat cells are this shape (round to oval)
Discoid cells
disk shaped, red blood cells
Fusiform cells
thick in the middle and tapered toward the ends . smooth muscle
fibrous
threadlike shape. skeletal muscle
cytoplasm
fluid between the nucleus and surface membrane
Transmission Electron Microscope
beam of electrons in place of light can see the ultrastructure
Scanning electron microscope
produces dramatic three dimensional images at high magnification and resolution only view surface featrues
plasma (cell) membrane
made of proteins and lipids
cytoskeleton
a system of protein microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubles in a cell, serving in physical support, cellular movement, and the routing of molecules and organelles to their destination within the cell
Intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytosol
clear gel that the organelles and cytoskeletons are embedded in
extracellular fluid (ECF)
fluid outside of the cell
Integral (transmembrane) proteins
a protein that extends through a plasma membrane and contacts both the extracellular and intracellualr fluid. Have hydrophilic regions in contact with the cytoplasm and extracellualr fluid and hydrophobic regions that pass back and forth through the lipid of the membrane. Most are glycoproteins which are conjugated with oligosaccharides on the extracellular side of the membrane. some float some are anchored to cytoskeleton
Peripheral proteins
do not protrude inot the phospholipid layer but adhere to the intracellular face of the membrane. typically associated with an integral protein and tethered to the cytoskeleton
Receptor
(function of membrane protein)
chemical signals by which cells communicate with each other often cannot enter the target cell, but bind to surface proteins called receptors. Usually specific for one particular messenger, much like an enzyme that is specific to one substrate
Second messenger systems
(function of membrane protein
a chemical that is produced within a cell (such as cAMP) or that enters a cell (such as calcium ions) in response to the binding of a messenger to a membrane receptor, an that triggers a metabolic reaction in the cell
Enzymes in plasma membrane
carry out the final stages of starch and protein digestion in the small intestine, help produce second messengers, and break down hormones and other signaling molecules whose job is done, thus stopping them from excessively stimulating a cell
Channel protein
integral proteins with pores that allowpassage of water and hydrophilic solutes through the membrane
ligand-regulated gates
respond to chemical messengers
voltage regulated gates
changes in electrical potential (voltage) across the plasma membrane
mechanically regulated gates
physical stress on a cell stimuli.
Carriers
integral proteins that bind to glucose, electrolytes, and other solutes and transfer them to the other side of the membrane.
molecular motors
these proteins produce movement by changing shape and pulling on other molecules. Move materials within a cell, as in transporting molecules and organelles to their destinations; they enable some cells, such as white blood cells, to crawl around in the body's tissues; and they make cells change shape, as when a cell surrounds and engulfs foreign particles or when it divide in two.
Glycocalyx
carbohydrate fuzzy surface coating, that acts like an identification tag. Contains glycolipids an glycoprotein. tells difference between healthy cells and transplanted tissues, invading organisms, and diseased cells
Cell adhesion molecules
protein membranes that allow cells to adhere to one another and to extracellular material. some do not survive with out this like sperm and egg
G- Protein
a protein of the plasma membrane that is activated by a membrane receptor and, in turn, opens an ion channel or activates an intracellular physioloical response; important in linking ligand receptor binding to second- messenger systems
Adenylate cyclase
An enzyme of the plasma membrane tha removes two phosphate molecules from ATP and makes cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP); important in the activation of the cAMP second-messenger system.
Kinases
in the cytosol,adds phosphate groups to other cellular enzymes. this activates some enzymes and deactivates others.
Microvilli
extensions of the plasma membrane that serve primarily to increase a cell's surface area. Good in absorption epithelial cells of the intestines and the kidney
Cilia
move substances along cell surface; some sensory roles (hearing, equilibrium, smell, vision)
axoneme
the core of microtubules, usually a "9 + 2" array at the center of a cilium of flagellum. the structural basis for ciliary movement.
basal body
anchors the cilium
Dynein
motor protein invovled in the beating of cilia and flagella and in the movement of molecules and organelles within cells, as in retrograde transport in a nerve fiber
Flagellum
whiplike structure much longer than a cilium but still has same axoneme. tail of sperm in humans
Selectively permeable
allows some things in membrane like nutrients and wastes, but usually prevents other things such as proteins and phosphates form entering and leaving
Passive mechanisms
require no energy expenditure by cell and include filtration and diffusion
Active mechanisms
require the cell to consume ATP. include active transport and vesicular transport
Carrier mediated
use a membrane protein to transport substances from one side of the membrane to the other
Filtration
process in which particles are driven through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure: the force exerted on membrane by water
Simple Diffusion
the net movement of particles from a place of high concentration to a place of lower concentration as a result of their constant, spontaneous motion
Osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane from "more watery" to the "less watery" side
Osmotic pressure
the amount of pressure that would have to be applied to one side of a selectively permeable membrane to stop osmosis; proportional to the concentration of nonpermeating solutees on that side and therefore serving as an indicator of solute concentration.
osmole
1 mole of dissolved particles
Osmolality
is the number of osmoles of solute per kilogram of water
Osmolarity
is the number of osmoles per liter of solution
Tonicity
is the ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume and pressure in a cell
Hypotonic
has a lower concentration of nonpermeating solutes than the intracelllular fluid (ICF). Cells absorb water, swell, and may burst.
Hypertonic
solution with a higher concentration of nonpermeating solutes than ICF. fluid (ICF) it causes cells to lose water and shrivel (crenate)
Isotonic
the total concentration of nonpermeating solutes is the same as in the ICF--hence they cause no change in cell volume or shape
Saturation
as the solute concentration rises, its rate of transport through a membrane increases, but only up to a point. Then levels off at the transport maximum
Three kinds of carriers
Uniport, symport, and Antiport
Uniport
carries only one solute at a time.
Symport
carries two or more solutes through a membrane simultaneously in the same direction (cotransport). Small intestine and kidneys take up sodium and glucose simultaneously
Antiport
carries two or more solutes in opposite directions (countertransport)sodium potassium pumps
Facilitated Diffusion
carrier mediated transport of solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient. Passive, does not consume DNA. the solute attches to a binding site on the carrier, then the carrier changes conformation and releases the solute on the other side of the membrane
G- Protein
a protein of the plasma membrane that is activated by a membrane receptor and, in turn, opens an ion channel or activates an intracellular physioloical response; important in linking ligand receptor binding to second- messenger systems
Adenylate cyclase
An enzyme of the plasma membrane tha removes two phosphate molecules from ATP and makes cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP); important in the activation of the cAMP second-messenger system.
Kinases
in the cytosol,adds phosphate groups to other cellular enzymes. this activates some enzymes and deactivates others.
Microvilli
extensions of the plasma membrane that serve primarily to increase a cell's surface area. Good in absorption epithelial cells of the intestines and the kidney
Cilia
move substances along cell surface; some sensory roles (hearing, equilibrium, smell, vision)
axoneme
the core of microtubules, usually a "9 + 2" array at the center of a cilium of flagellum. the structural basis for ciliary movement.
basal body
anchors the cilium
Dynein
motor protein invovled in the beating of cilia and flagella and in the movement of molecules and organelles within cells, as in retrograde transport in a nerve fiber
Flagellum
whiplike structure much longer than a cilium but still has same axoneme. tail of sperm in humans
Selectively permeable
allows some things in membrane like nutrients and wastes, but usually prevents other things such as proteins and phosphates form entering and leaving
Passive mechanisms
require no energy expenditure by cell and include filtration and diffusion
Active mechanisms
require the cell to consume ATP. include active transport and vesicular transport
Carrier mediated
use a membrane protein to transport substances from one side of the membrane to the other
Filtration
process in which particles are driven through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure: the force exerted on membrane by water
Simple Diffusion
the net movement of particles from a place of high concentration to a place of lower concentration as a result of their constant, spontaneous motion
Active transport
is the carrier mediated transport of a solute through a membrane up its concentration gradient. Sodium potassium pump
Vesicular transport
move large particles, droplets of fluid, or numerous molecules at once through the membrane, contained in bubblelike vesicles of membrane
endocytosis
vesicular processes that bring matter into a cell
exocytosis
vesicular proccesses that release material from a cell
Two forms of endocytosis
phagocytosis and pinocytosis
Phagocytosis
cell eating, is the process of engulfing particles such as bacteria, dust, and cellular debis, particles large enough to be seen with a microscope. Occurs in some human cells
Phagosome
part of a neutrophil and is a vesicle in the cytoplasm surrounded by a unit membrane.
Pinocytosis
cell drinking is the process of takin in droplets of ECF containing molecules of some use to the cell. Occurs in all human cells
pinocytotic vesicles
contain droplets of the ECF and ar in the cytoplasm
Receptor mediated endocytosis
Phagocytosis or pinocytosis in which specific solute particles bind to receptors on the plasma membrane, and are then taken into the cell in clathrin-coated vesicles with a minimal amount of fluid
transcytosis
transport of a substance across a cell
Exocytosis
process of eliminating material from a cell by means of viscle approaching the cell surface, fusing with the plasma membane, and expelling its contents, used to release cell secretions, replace worn -out plasma membrane, and replace membrane that has been internalized by endocytosis.
nucleus
largest organelle and usually the only one visible with the light microscope. spheroid to elliptical
anuclear
no nucleus. RBC
multinuclear
having 2-50 nuclei, liver cells, skeletal muscle
nuclear envelope
covers the nucleus with nuclear pores on it
nucleoplasm
material in the nucleus
chromatin
in the nuceleoplasm and is fine thread like matter composed of DNA and protein
nucleoli
in the nuceloplasm and there are one or more of these and they are dark staining masses where ribosomes are porduced
Endoplasmic Reticulum
an extensive system of interconnected cytoplasmic tubules or channnels; classified as rough ER or smooth ER depending on the presence or absence of ribosomes on its membrane
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
network is composed of parallel flattened sac covered wtih granules called ribosomes. Protein synthesis and manufatcture of cellular membranes
smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
branching network of tubules with smooth surface usually broken into small segments in TEM photos. Lipid syntesis detoxification calcium storage
Ribosomes
small dark granuels free in cytosol or on suface of rough ER. Interpret the genetic code and synthesize polypeptides make them
Golgi complex
several closely spaced, parallel cisternae with thick edges, usually near nucleus, often with many GOlgi vesicles nearby. Receives and modifies newly synthesized polypeptides, synthesizes carbohydrates, adds carbohydrates to glycoproteins; packages cell products in to GOlgi vessicles
golgi vesicles
round to irregular sacs near golgi complex. Become secretory vesicles and carry cell products to apical surface for exocytosis or become lysosomes
autophagy
digesting and disposing of worn out mitochondria and other organelles by the lysosomes
autolysis
digestion of surplus cells by their own lysosomal enzymes
Lysosomes
package of enzymes bounded by a single unit membrane. Contain enzymes for intracellular digestion, autophagy, programmed cell death, and glucose mobilization
Peroxisomes
similar to lysosomes but contain different enzymes and are not produced by the golgi complex. neutralized free radicals and detoxify alcohol and other drugs, and oxidize fatty acids
Mitochondria
Synthesize ATP. Round, rod-shaped, bean shaped, or threadlike structures with double unit membrane and shelflike infoldings calle crisate
matrix
contains ribosomes, enzymes in ATP synthesis, and small circular DNA molecules. IN space between cristae
Centriole
Short cylindrical bodies, each composed of a circle of nie triplets of microtubles. Form mitotic spindle during cell division; unpaired centrioles form basal bodies of cilia and flagella
Cytoskeleton
is a collection of protein filaments and cylinders that determine the shape of a cell, lend it structural spport, organize its contents, move substances through the cell, and contribute to movements of the cell as a whole.
Centrosome
clear area near nucleus containing a pair of centrioles. Organizing center for formation of microtubules of cytoskeleton and mitotic spindle
Basal Body
unpaired centriole at the base of a cilium or flagellum. Point of origin, growth and anchorage of a cilium or flagellum. Produces axoneme
Microfillaments
thin protein filaments (6nm) in diameter, often in parallel bundles or dense networks in cytoplasm. Support microvilli; invovled in muscle contraction and other cell motility, endocytosis and cell division.
Intermediate filaments
thicker protein filaments (8-10nm) extending throughout cytoplasm, or concentrated at cell-to cell junctions. give shape a physical support to cell; ancho cells to each other and to extracellular material; compartmentalize cell contents
Microtubules
hollow protein cylinders (25nm) form axonemes of cilia and flagella, centrioles, basal bodies, and mitotic spindles; enable motility of cell parts; direct organelles and macromolecules to their destinatino within a cell.
Inclusion
Highly variable fat droplets, glycogen granules, protin crytals, dust, bacteria, viruses; never enclosed in unit membranes. Storage products or other products of cellular metabolism, or foreing matter retained in cytoplasm