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68 Cards in this Set

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element
simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties
trace elements
needed in small amounts in body but still important
minerals
inorganic elements that are extracted from the soil by plants and passed up the food chain to humans and other organisms. mostly Ca and P
Isotopes
elements differ in number of neutrons therefore atomic mass
radioisotopes
unstable isotopes
radioactivity
process of decay
ionizing radiation
high energy radiatino ejects electrons from atoms, converting atoms to ions. Destroys molecules and produces dangerous free radicals and ions in human tissues.
physical half life
the time required for 50% of its atoms to decay to a more stable state
biological half-life
time required for half of it to disappear from the body
ions
are charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons
anion
gains electrons acquires a negative charge
cation
loses electrons acquires a positive charge
electrolytes
salts that ionize in water and form solutions capable of conducting eletricity
Free Radicals
chemical particles with an odd number of electrons
antioxident
chemical that neutralizes free radicals.
Molecules
two or more atoms united by a covalent chemical bond
compounds
two or more different elements
isomers
molecules wtih identical molecular formulae but different arrangements of their atoms
hydrogen
weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen atom in another.
colloid
an aqueous mixture of particles that are too large to pass through most selectively permeable membranes but small enough to remain evenly dispersed through the solvent by the thermal motion of solvent particles. protein. scatter light
suspension
large particles cloudy or opaque. seperate on standing
acid
proton donar
base
proton acceptor
oxidation
is any chemical reaction in which a molecule gives up electrons and releases energy
Reduction
a chemical reaction in which a molecule gains electrons and energy
oxidizing agent
electron acceptor
reducing agent
electron donar
polymerization
the joining of monomers to form a polymer
dehydration synthesisa
a reaction in which two chemical monomers are joined together with water produced as a by-product.
hydrolysis
water molecule ionizes into OH- and H+. (digestion)
monosacharrides
glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose
disacchariseds
sucrose, lactose, maltose
polysaccharides
glycogen, starch, cellulose
glycogen
energy-storage polysaccharide made by cells of the liver, muscles, uterus, and vagaina
starch
corresponding energy-storage polysaccharide of plants.
Cellulose
is structural polysaccharide that gives strength to the cell walls of plants. wood cotton and paper
glycolipids and glycoproteins
many of the lipid and protein molecules at the external surface of the cell membrane have chains of up to 12 sugars attached to them
lipid
hydrophobic organic molecule, usually composed only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
phospholipid
in place of one fatty acid, they have a phosphate group, which, in turn, is linked to other functional groups
amphiphilic
two fatty acid tails on fhte molecule are hydrophobic, but the phosphate head is hydrophilic
eicosanoids
20 Carbon compounds derived from a fatty acid called arachidonic acid
steroid
a lipid with 17 of its carbon atoms arranged in four rings
element
simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties
trace elements
needed in small amounts in body but still important
minerals
inorganic elements that are extracted from the soil by plants and passed up the food chain to humans and other organisms. mostly Ca and P
Isotopes
elements differ in number of neutrons therefore atomic mass
radioisotopes
unstable isotopes
radioactivity
process of decay
ionizing radiation
high energy radiatino ejects electrons from atoms, converting atoms to ions. Destroys molecules and produces dangerous free radicals and ions in human tissues.
physical half life
the time required for 50% of its atoms to decay to a more stable state
biological half-life
time required for half of it to disappear from the body
ions
are charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons
anion
gains electrons acquires a negative charge
cation
loses electrons acquires a positive charge
peptide
is any molecule composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds. formed from dehydration synthesis
Enzymes
are proteins that function as biological catalysts
active sites
the region of a protein that binds to a ligand, such as the substrate-binding site of an enzyme or the hormone-binding site of a receptor
cofactor
non protein part neede for enzymes to function
coenzyme
are organic cofactors usually derived from water soluble vitamins
Nucleotides
are organic compounds with three principal components, single or double bond carbon nitrogen ring, monosaccharide, and one or more phosphate groups
Adenosine Triphosphate
briefly stores energy gained from exergonic reactions such as glucose oxidation and releases it within seconds for physiological work such as polymerization reactions, uscle contraction, and pumping ions through cell membranes
phosphorylation
carried out by enzymes called kinases (phosphokinases) and is sometimes the switch that turns a metabolic pathway on or off.
glycolysis
the first stage of glucose oxidation. sugar splitting
anerobic fermentation
when there is no oxygen for pyruvic acid, turns to lactic acid
aerobic respiration
when oxygen available breaks down pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and water and generates up to 36 or more ATP.
Nucleic acids
are polymers of nucleotides. larges of them deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
DNA
constitutes our genes, gives instructions for synthesizing all of the body's proteins and transfers hereditary information from cell to cell when cells divide and from generation to generation when organisms reproduce
RNA
Carry out those instructions and synthesize the proteins, assembling amino acids in the right order to produce each protein described by DNA