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487 Cards in this Set

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Why do u need to study chemistry in anatomy?
bc your body is composed of tons of chemicals
What is matter?
is anything that occupies space and has mass
NAME
is anything that occupies space and has mass
matter
Matter can exist in (1), (2), or (3)
(1)liquid (2)gas (3)solid
Compared w matter, energy is (1)
less tangible
T or F
energy has mass and takes up space
flase
What is energy?
is the capacity to do work
NAME
is the capacity to do work
energy
What is kinetic energy?
is the energy of motion
NAME
is the energy of motion
kinetic energy
What is potiental energy?
is stored energy
NAME
is stored energy
potiental energy
What are the differ forms of energy? (4)
(1)chemical energy (2)electrical energy (3)mechinical (4)radiant energy
What is chemical energy?
is in energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances
NAME
is energy stored in bonds of chemical substances
chemical energy
T or F
food fuels can be used to energize body activities directly
false
What does ATP stand for?
Adenoisine triphosphate
What is electrical energy?
results from the movement of charged particles
NAME
energy resulting from the movement of charged particles
electrical energy
What is mechinical energy?
is energy directly involved in moving matter
NAME
is energy directly involved in moving matter
mechinical energy
Radiant energy is also called (1)
electromagentic energy
(1) is also called electromagenitic energy
Radiant energy
What is radiant energy?
is energy that travels in waves
NAME
is energy that travels in waves
radiant energy
When energy is converted, (1)
heat is lossed
All matter is composed of (1)
elements
All (1) is composed of elements
matter
What is an element?
substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordiniary methods
NAME
are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordiniary methods
element
How many elements are there?
112
How many elements ocur in nature?
92
What are the four elements that make up 96% of body wieght?
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
NAME
are the buiding blocks
atoms
Each element is unique in (1) and (2) properties
(1)chemical (2)physical
What are physical properties?
are those that we can detect w our senses
NAME
are those that we can detect w our senses
physical properties
What are chemical properties?
is the way that atoms interact w other atoms
NAME
is the way that atoms interact w other atoms
chemical properties
What does the word atom come from?
the greek word meaning indivisible
How much do protons and nuetrons weigh?
about the same - 1 amu
What does amu stand for?
atomic mass unit
(1) is entirely dense and accounts for nearly the entire mass of the atom
nucleus
All atoms are eletrically (1)
nuetral
Why are all atoms eletrically neutral?
bc the number of protons and electrons are normally equally
What is a planetary model?
model of the atomic structure
NAME
is the model of the atomic structure
planetary model
T or F
can determine the exact location of the electrons
False
What is orbitals?
regions around the nucleus in which the given electron or electron pair are likley to be found
NAME
are regions around the nucleus in which the given electron or electron pair are likely to be found
orbitals
What is orbital model?
is useful for predicting the chemical behhavior of atoms
NAME
is useful for predicting the chemcial behavior of atoms
orbital model
Most of the vol an atom is (1)and nearly all of its mass is located in the (2)
empty space (2)nucleus
Atoms of different elements are composed of different (1), (2),and (3)
(1)p (2)e (3)n
What is the atomic number?
number of protons
NAME
is the number of protons
atomic number
What is the mass number?
is the number of p + n
NAME
is p + n
mass number
4 HE
2

How many protons are there? electrons? and mass numeber?
4=mass number
2= protons and electrons
What are istopes?
elements that have the same number of protons but differ numbers of nuetrons
NAME
elements that have the same number of protons but differ number of neutrons
istopes
What are the most abundant istopes of Carbon?
12C, 13C, and 14 C
What is atomic wieght?
is an average of the relative weights of all istopes in an element
NAME
is an average of the relative weights of all istopes in an element
atomic wieght
The heavier istopes of many elements are (1)and (2)
unstable (2)their atoms decompose spontaneously into more stable forms
What is radioactivity?
this process of atomic decay
NAME
is the process of atomic decay
radioactivity
NAME
are istopes that exhibit radioactivity behavior
radioistopes
What are radioistopes?
are istopes that exhibit radioactivity behavior
the disintegration of radioactive nucleus may be compared to any tiny explosion. Explain when/how it ocurs
alpha, beta, and /or gamma rays are ejected from the nucleus
The time required for radioistopes to lose one-half of their activity is called (1)
half-life
How are radioistopes useflly for medical purposes?
for diagnosis and to localize and elminate damaged or cancerous tissues
What is iodine-13 used for?
to detect for thyroid cancer
NAME
is used to detect thyriod cancer
iodine-13
What is one disadvantage of radioactivity?
they all damage living tissue
(1) emission has the lowest penetration power and is the least damaging
Alpha
(1) emission has the greatest penetrating power
Gamma
T or F
most atoms do not exist in a free state
True
What is a molecule?
is two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond
NAME
is two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond
molecule
When two oxygen combine, a (1) of oxygen is formed
molecule
What is compound?
when two or more different kinds of atoms bind
NAME
are when two or more different kinds of atoms bind
compound
What are mixtures?
are substances composed of two or more componenets physically intermixed
NAME
are substances composed of two or more componenents physically intermixed
mixtures
What are the three types of mixtures?(3)
(1)solutions (2)colloids (3)suspensions
What is a solution?
are homogenous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids, or solids
NAME
are homogenous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids, or solids
solution
What is a solvent?
if the substance present in the greatest amount
NAME
if the substance present in the greatest
solvent
Solvents are usally (1)
liquids
What are solutes?
are substances present in smaller amounts
NAME
are substances present in smaller amount
solutes
Water is the body's (1)
chief solvent
NAME
is the body's cheif solvent
water
T or F
most solutions in the body are true solution
True
True solutions are usally (1)
transparent
Solutions used in a college lab or hospital are often described in terms of (1) of tthe solute in the solution
percent
What is molarity?
moles per liter
NAME
refers to moles per liter
molarity
Another way to express the concentration of a solution of a solution in terms of (1)
molarity
A (1) of any element or compound its (2)
(1)mole (2)atomic wieght
T or F
a mole of any element or compound is equal to tis atomic wieght weighed out in grams
True
What is Avoagadros number?
6.02 *10^23
What are colloids?
areheterogeneous mixtures that often appear transluccent or milky
NAME
are heterogeneous mixtures that often appear translucent or milky
Colloids
What are sol-gel transformations?
to change reversibly from a fluid state to a more solid state
NAME
to change reversibly from a fluid state to a more solid state
sol-gel transformations
Give ex of a sol-gel transformation?
jell-O or any gelatin product
NAME
ex is a jell-o or any gelatin product
sol-gel transformation
What are suspensions?
are heterogeneous mixtures w large, often visble soltues that tend to settle out
NAME
are heterogenous mixtures w large, often visible solutes thattend to settle out
suspensions
Give a ex of suspensions?
of sand and water and (2)blood
NAME
exs include sand water and blood
suspensions
T or F
all living types of mixtures are found in both living and nonliving systems
True
What are three ways that mixtures differ from compounds?
(1)the chief difference is that there are no chemical bonds in mixtures (2)depending on the mixtures, its components can be separted by physcially means and compounds can only be seperated by chemical means (3)Some mixtures are homogeneous whereas other are heterogenous mixtures,and pure compounds are homogeneous
What is a chemical bond?
it is a energy relationship btwn the electrons of the reacting atoms
NAME
it is an energy relationship btwn the electrons of the reacting atoms
chemical bond
What are electron shells?
regions of space in which electrons are ocupied
NAME
are regions of space in which electrons ocupy
electron shell
Each electron shell represents a different (1)
energy level
Each (1) represents a different energy level
electron shell
What does the amount of poteintal energy depend on?
the energy level
The amount of (1) depends on the energy level
potential energy
Why do electrons the furtherest away from the nucelus have the greatest potiental energy and are more likely to interact chemically w other atoms?
bc attraction btwn the + charge nucleus and - charged electrons is greatest closest to the nucleus and falls off w increasing distance
Each shell can only hold (1) electrons
2
Which electrons are the most important?
those in the outer shell
What is the valence shell?
indicates an atom's outermost energy level
NAME
indicates an atom's outermost energy level or that portion of it containing the electrons that are chemically reactive
valance shell
Except for shell 1, the shells follow the (1)
octet rule
What are the three major types of chemical bonds?
(1)ionic (2)covalent (3)hydrogen
What is a ion?
a charge particle
NAME
is a charged particle
ion
What is a ionic bond?
is a chemical bond btwn atoms formed by the transfer of one or more eletrons from one atom to the other
NAME
is a chemical bond btwn atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other
ionic bond
What is anion?
is the electron acceptor that has a negative charge
What is an e acceptor?
the atom that gains electrons
NAME
is that atom that gains one ore more electrons
acceptor
NAME
is the electron acceptor w a negative charge
anion
What is a cation?
is the electron donor that has a postive charge
NAME
is the electron donor that has a postive charge
cation
What is a electron donor?
the atom that loses a electron and gains a postive charge
NAME
is a atom taht loses a electron and gains a postive charge
electron donor
Give a ex of ionic bond
NaCl
Most ionic compounds are (1)
salts
Ionic bonds such as salts are normoally in the form of (1)
crystals
What are crystals?
are large arrays of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds
NAME
are large arrays of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds
crystals
What are covalent bonds?
bonds formed by the sharing of two Electrons
NAME
bond formed by the sharing of two electrons
covalent bonds
What are nonpolar molecules?
eletrically balanced molecules
NAME
are electrically balanced molecules
nonpolar molecules
What are polar molecules?
molecules w in unequal electron pair sharing
NAME
are molecules w in unequal electron pair sharing
polar molecules
What is electronegativity?
the ability to attract elcetrons
NAME
is the abilty to attract electrons
eletronegativity
Most atoms w only one or two valence shells tend to be (1)
electropostive
Most atoms w only (1) valence shells tend to be electropostive
one or two
What is electropostive?
mean their electron-attracting ability is so low that they usally lose their valance shell electrons to other atoms
NAME
means that their electron-attracting ability is so low that they usally lose their valence shell electrons to other atoms
electropostive
dipole refers to a (1)
polar molecule
Hydrogen bonding is common btwn (1)
dipoles such as water molecules
(1) bonding is common btwn dipoles such as water molecules
Hydrogen
Wy is hyrdogen bonding common in water molecules?
bc the slightly negative charge of oxygen atoms attracts the sligthly postive hydrogen atom of other molecules
What is surface tension?
is the tendecny of water molecules to cling together and form films
NAME
is the tendency of water molecules to cling together and form film
surface tension
T or F
all particles of matter are in constant motion bc of kinetic energy
True
What is a chemical reaction?
ocurs when ever chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
NAME
ocurs when ever chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
chemical reaction
What are the reactants?
the begining products of a chemical reaction
What are the products?
are the end products of the chemical reaction
What is syntesis reaction?
is when atoms or molecules combine to form a more complex molecule
NAME
is when atoms or molecules combine to form a more complex molecule
synthesis reaction
Synthesis reactions are the basis of constructive (1) reactions
anabolic
What is a decompostion reaction?
when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules
NAME
is when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules
decompostion reaction
(1) is also called displacement reaction
exchange
Exchange reaction is also called displacement reaction
exchange
What is a displacement reaction?
when bonds are both broken and formed
NAME
is a reactin in which bonds are both broken and formed
displacement reaction
An (1) reaction ocurs when ATP reacts w glucose and transfers its end phosphate group
exchange
An exchange reaction ocurs when (1)
ATP reacts w glucose and transfers its end phosphate group
(1) are the basis of all reactions in which food fuels are catbolized for energy
redox reactions
redox reactions are the basis of allr reactions in which (1) are catablized for (2)
(1)food fuels (2)energy
What is oxidation?
is the reactant losing the electron
NAME
is the reactant losing the eletron
oxidation
NAME
if the reactant is an electron donor
oxidation
What is reduction?
is reactant taking up the extra electron
NAME
is the reactant taking up the extra electron
reduction
NAME
if the rectant is the electron acceptor
reduction
T or F
all redox reaction involve complete transfer of electrons
False
What is the formula for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 +6O2= 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
What are exergonic reactions?
are reactions that release energy
NAME
are reactions that release energy
exergonic reactions
What are endergonic reactions?
is when the reaction's products absorb energy
NAME
are reactions in which the products are absorb energy
endergonic reactions
Do endergonic or exergoinc reactions have more potenital energy?
endergonic
DO endergonic or exergonic reactions lose the most energy in their products?
exergoinic
(1) reactions are typically energy-absorbing endergonic reactions
anabolic
Are all chemical reactions theoretically reversible?
yes
T or F
neither the foward reaction nor the reverse reaction is dominant
TRUE
What is chemcial elqubrim?
when their is no net change
NAME
is when there is no net change in a chemcial reaction
chemical elquilbrium
Do reactions tend to be reversible?
no
Give ex of a reaction that hardly ever is reversible?
cellular resipiration
For atoms and molecules to react chemically, what most happen?
they most collide w enough force to overcome the repulsion btwn their electrons
What happens when atoms and moleules collide w enough force to overcome the repulsion btwn their electrons?
they react chemically
Chemical reactions produce (1) w higher temperatures
quicker
What are four factors that can speed up a chemical reaction? (4)
(1)temperature (2)conecntration (3)particle size (4)catalysts
What happens to a chemical reaction if there is a high presence of reacting particles?
the chemical reaciton speeds up
How does particle size influence a chemical reaction?
smaller particles move faster than larger ones and tend to collide more frequently and more forcefully
What are catalysts?
are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions w out themselves becoming chemcially changed or part of the product
NAME
are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions w out themselves becoming chemically changed or part of the product
catalysts
What are enzymes?
are biological catalyst
NAME
are biological catalysts
enzymes
What is biochemistry?
is the study of the chemical compostion and reactions of living matter
NAME
is the study of the chemical compostion and reactions of living matter
biochemistry
What are organic compounds?
compounds containing carbon
NAME
are compounds containing carbon
organic compounds
All organic compounds are (1)
covalently bounded
All (1) compounds are covalently bonded
organic compounds
water, salts, and many acids and bases are ex(s) of (1) compounds
inorganic
NAME
is the most abundant and important inorganic compound in living material
water
What are the (5) properties of water?
(1)high heat capacity (2)high heat of vaporization (3)polar solvent properties (4)reactivity (5)cushioning
What does it mean that water has a high heat capacity?
means that it absorbs and relases large amounts of heat w out changing the temp its self
Water's (1) prevents sudden changes in temperature caused by external factors
high heat capacity
Water's (1) is highly benefictial when we sweat bc as the prespiration evaporates from our skin, large amounts of heat are removed from the body, providing a effective cooling mechanism
high heat of vaporization
Why is water's high heat of vaporization so beneficital to the human body?
bc when we sweat bc as the prespiration evaporates from our skin, large amounts of heat are removed from the body, providing a effective cooling mechanism
NAME
is the universal solvent
water
T or F
virtuall all chemical reactions occuring in the body depend on water
True
ionic compounds and other small reactive molecules (1) in water
dissociate
(1) compounds dissociate in water
ionic
Water can form (1)around large charged molecules such as protiens
hydration layers
What is a hydration layer?
is when water forms a shield around large molecules like proteins protecting them from the effects of other charged substances and preventing them from settling out of the solution
NAME
is when water forms a shield around large molecules like proteins protecting them from the effects of other charged substances and preventing them from settling out of the solution
hydration layer
What are biolgical colloids?
are protien water mixtures in which the protein is surrounded by a hydration layer
NAME
are protien water mixtures in which the protien is surrounded by a hydrogen layer
biological colloids
What are some exs of biolgical colloids? (2)
(1)cerebrospinal fluid (2)blood
Cerebrospinal fluid and blood are exs of (1)
colloids
What does hydrolysis reaction mean?
means water spilting
NAME
means water spilting
hydrolysis
What is dehydration synthesis?
is when a water molecule is removed for every bond formed
NAME
is when a water molecule is removed from every bond formed
dehydration synthesis
What is hydrolysis reaction?
is when a water molecule is added a bond is broken
NAME
is when a water molecules is added a bond is broken
hydrolysis reaction
How is water's ability for chusioning important?
helps protect the body from physcial trauma
Water can form a resilient (1) around certain body organs, helping protect them during physcial trauma
cushion
What is a salt?
is ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and OH
NAME
is an ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and OH
salt
All ions are (1)
electrolytes
All (1) are electrolytes
ions
What are electrolytes?
substances that conduct electrical current in a solution
NAME
are substances that conduct electrical current in a solution
electrolytes
Maintaning proper (1) balance in our body fluids is one of the more crucial homeostatic roles of the kindeys
ionic
Maintaning proper ionic balance in our body fluids is one of the more crucial homeostatic roles of the (1)
kidneys
What happens when the body's ionic balance is disturbed?
nothing works
NAME
have a sour taste and can react w many metals
acids
What do acids taste like?
sour
Acids can react w (1)
many metals
What is a acid?
is a proton donor that releases H+ ions when placed in water
NAME
is a proton donor that releases H+ ions when placed in water
acid
NAME
is a proton acceptor that releases HO ions when placed in water
base
What is base?
is a electron acceptor that releases OH ions when placed in water
What do bases taste like?
bitter
NAME
have a bitter taste and slipperly
base
Give two important ex of bases (2)
(1)HCO3- (2)NH3
HCO3- and NH3 are exs of important (1) in the body
bases
HCO3 stands for (1)
bicarbonate ion
NH3 stands for (1)
ammonia
What is HCO3-?
is an important base in the body that is abundant in the blood
NAME
is an important base in the body that is abundant in the blood
HCO3
NAME
is a common waste product of protien break down in the body
NH3
What is NH3?
is a common waste product of protien break down in the body
when a solution acidic?
when there is more H ions than OH
When is a soltion basic?
when there is more OH ions than H
Basic can also be called (1)
alkaline
(1) can also be called alkaline
Basic
The relative concentration of H ions in various body fluids is measured in concentration units called (1)
pH units
if it has ph lower than 7 it is (1)
acidic
if it has a ph higher than 7 it is (1)
basic
What is the pH of pure water?
7
if it has a pH of 7, what is it?
pure water
What happens when two strong bases and strong acids react?
they form water and salt
IF the by product of the reaction is water and salt, what are most likely the reactants?
a strong acid and a strong base
NAME
is the joining of H+ and OH+ to form water that neutralizes the solution
neutralization reaction
T or F
living cells are very senstative to changes in pH
True
Homeostatis of acid-base balance is carfully regulated by the (1) and (2) and (3)
(1) kindeys (2)lungs (3)buffers
Homeostatis of (1) balance is carefully regulated by the kindeys, lungs, and buffers
acid-base
What are buffers?
resist aprubt and large swings in the pH of body fluids by releasing H ions
NAME
resist aprubt and large swings in the pH of body fluids by releasing H ions
buffers
What are strong acids?
are acids that dissocaiate completely and irreversivly in water
NAME
are acids that dissocaite completely and irreversivbly in water
strong acids
NAME
are bases that dissocaite completely and irreversivbly in water
strong bases
What are strong bases?
are bases that dissocaite completely and irreversivbly in water
What are weak acids?
are acids that do not dissociate completly in water
NAME
are acids that do not dissociate completly in water
weak acids
NAME
are bases that do not dissociate completly in water
weak bases
What are weak bases?
are bases that do not dissociate completly in water
Give a ex of a very importatn buffer in the body?
carbonic acid-bicarbonate system
NAME
a ex is the carbonic acid-bicarbonarte sytstem
buffer
(1) bases are replaced by (1)bases and the same goes for acids
(1)strong (2)weak
is Cabron dioxide a organic comound?
no
What is a consquence of carbon being electroneutral?
by it never loses or gain electrons, it always shares them
Carbon is (1)
electronuetral
(1) is electroneurtal
carbon
What are carbs?
is sugar and starch
NAME
is sugar and starch
carbs
What is the the formula for carbs?
CH2O (2:1 ration
CH2O is a (1)
carb
C2H4O2 is a (1)
carb
carbs are refered to as (1)
monosaccrides
(1) are refered to as monosaccrides
carbs
disaccharides means (1)
two sugars
monosaccharides means (1)
one sugar
polysaccharides means (1)
many sugars
(1) means many sugars
polysaccharides
What pentose?
a 5 carbon sugar
NAME
is a five carbon sugar
pentose
NAME
is a 6 carbon sugar
hexose
What is hexose?
a 6 carbon sugar
galactose and frutose are (1)
isomers
Give a ex of isomers
glactose and frutose
What is a isomer?
is when they have the same molecular fomurla but their atoms are arranged differently giving them different chemical properties
NAME
when they have the same molecular fomurla but their atoms are arranged differently giving them different chemical properties
isomer
NAME
is two monosacrides joined togher by dehydration synthesis
disarrharides
disarrharides are (1) joined together by (2)
(1)two monosacrides (2)dehydration synthesis
What are some important disaccharides in our diet? (3)
(1)sucrose (2)lactose (3)maltose
Sucrose, lactose, and maltose are exs of (1)
disaccharides
What is sucrose?
table sugar
NAME
is table sugar
sucrose
NAME
is a sugar found in milk
lactose
What is lactose?
is a sugar found in milk
NAME
is malt sugar
maltose
What is sucrose made of?
glucose and frutose
NAME
is glucose and frutose
sucrose
NAME
is glucose and galactose
lactose
NAME
is glucose and glucose
maltose
What are the two sugars that make up maltose?
glucose and glucose
What are the two sugars that make up lactose?
glucose and galactose
(1) must be digested into simple sugars in order to be absorbed in the blood
disaccharides
What is polysaccharides?
are long chains of simple sugars linked together by dehydration syntehisis
NAME
are long chains of simple sugars linked together by dehyradtion synthesis
polysaccharides
What are polymers?
are long chains of polysaccrides
NAME
are long chains of polysaccrides
polymers
polysaccharides are (1) products
ideal storage
NAME
are ideal storage products
polysaccharides
What are two important polysaccharides in the body?
(1)strach (2)glycogen
starch and glycogen are two important (1) in the body
polysaccharides
What is starch?
is the storage carb formed by plants
NAME
is the storage carb formed by plants
starch
What things can u find starch in?
pototoes and grain products
NAME
pototoes and grain products are rich in this
strach
What is Glycogen?
is the storage carb of animal tissues
NAME
is the storage carb of animal tissues
Glycogen
Can u digest cellulose?
no
Why is cellulose in bulk important?
bc its fiber can be used to move feces through the colon
What are lipids?
are insoulbe in water but dissolve readily in other lipids and solvents
NAME
are insouble in water but dissolve readily in other lipids and solvents such as alocholol and ether
lipids
What are the differ types of lipids? (3)
(1)neutral fats (2)phospholipids (3)steriods
What makes up a fat?
(1)3 fatty acids (2)glcyerol
NAME
it has 3 fatty acids and glycerol
fat
What is fatty acid?
are linear chains of Carbon and Hydrogen w an organic group
NAME
are linear chains of Carbon and Hydrogen w in organic group formed by dehydration synthesis
fatty acid
NAME
is a modifed simple sugar
Glycerol
What is glycerol>
is a modifed simple sugar
How are fats put together?
dehyrdartion synthesis
neutral fats are also called (1) or (2)
(1)triglycerides (2)triacylglycerols
Deposits of fat are found mainly (1) where they (2)
(1)beneath the skin (2)insulate the deeper tissues from heat loss and protect them from mechanical trauma
NAME
are found mainly beneath the skin where they insualte the deeper tissues from heat loss and protect them from mechanical stress
neutral fats
What is saturated fats?
fatty acid chains w only singe covalent bonds btwn the carbon atoms
NAME
are fatty acid chains w only single covalent bonds bwtn the carbon atoms
saturated fats
What are unsaturated fats?
are fatty acid chains that contain one or more double bonds btwn the carbon atoms
NAME
are fatty acid chains that contain one or more double bonds btwn the carbon atoms
unsaturated fats
What are some exs of unsaturated fats?
oils
NAME
a ex is oil like olive oil and peanut oil
unsaturated fats
Unsatured fats are (1) at room temp
liquid
Saturated fats are (1) at room temp
solid
(1) fats are liquid at room temp
unsaturated
(1) fats are solids at room temp
saturated
NAME
exs include butter and animal fat
saturated fats
What are exs of saturated fats?
butter
What are phopholipids?
are modified trigylcerates
NAME
are modifed trigylerates
phospholipids
What does amphipathic mean?
are molecules that have both polar and nonpolar regions
NAME
are molecules that have both polar and nonpolar regions
amphipathic
What are steroids?
are flat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings
NAME
are flat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings
steriods
What is the single most important sterioid?
cholestral
NAME
exs include cholestral
steriod
What are eixosanoids?
are diverse lipids chiefly derived from a 20 carbon fatty acid found in all cell membranes
NAME
are diverse lipids cheifly derived from a 20 carbon fatty acid found in all cell membranes
eixosanoids
Why are eixosanoids (including prostaglandins) important?
bc they play roles in various body processes like blood clotting, inflammation, and labor contractions
NAME
these are important bc they play roles in various body processes like blood clotting, inflammation and labor
eixosanoids
T or F
all protiens are constructional material
False
All protiens contain (1), (2), (3),and (4)
C, O, H, and N
NAME
are buidling blocks of protiens
amino acids
What are amino acids ?
the building blocks of protiens
How many amino acids are there?
20
What is a amino acid made up of? (3)
a (1)R group (2)amino group (3)carboxyl group
NAME
are long chains of amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis with the amino acid end linked to the next amino acid end
peptide bonds
What holds differ protiens together?
peptide bond
Most protiens are (1)
marcomolecules
Most (1) are marcomolecules
protiens
What is the apla helix?
resemebles a toy or the coils of a phonecord
NAME
resemebles a toy or the coils of a phonecord
apha helix
What is beta pleated sheet?
is the primary polypeptide chains that do not coil but are linked side by side by H bonds to form a pleated sheet
NAME
is the primary polypeptide chains that do not coil but are linked together by H bonds to form a pleated sheet
beta pleated sheet
NAME
this structure is alpha helix and the beta pleated sheets folded to together to form a globular molecule
tertiary structure
What is a tertiary strucutre?
this structure is alpha helix and the beta pleated sheets folded to together to form a globular molecule
What is the primary structure?
is the polypeptide strand
NAME
is the polypeptide strand
primary structure
NAME
is teh alpha helix and beta pleated sheets
secoundary structure
What is the secoundary structure?
is the aplha helix and beat pleated sheets
What is the quaternary structure?
is two or more polypepetide chains
NAME
is two or more polypepetide chains
quaternary structure
What are the differ levels of the protien in order(3)?
(1)primary (2)secoundary (3)quaternary
WHat are fibrous protiens?
are extended and strandlike protiens
NAME
are extended and strandlike protiens
fibrous protiens
What are some ex of fibrous protiens? (3)
(1)collagen (2)kertain (3)elastin
NAME
collagen, kertain, and elastin are exs of this
fibrous protiens
fibrous protiens are also known as (1) bc they are the cheif building materials of the body
strucural protiens
(1) protiens are also called structural protiens bc they are the chief building material of the body
fibrous protiens
NAME
exhibit only secoundary structure and some only qauetranry structure
fibrous protiens
NAME
are compact, spherical protiens that have a least tertiary structure
Globular protiens
What are globular protiens
are compact, spherical protiens
Globular protiens are also called (1)
functional protiens
(1) protiens are also called functional protiens
globular
NAME
some of these protiens help provide immunity, others are cataylsts.
globular protiens
Which are stable protiens:fibrous or globular?
fibrous
Which are unstable protiens:fibrous or globular?
globular
H bonds btwn down whent the (1)or 2), causing the protiens to denature
(1)ph drops (2)temp rises
What is denatured mean?
refers to when a protien unfolds and loses their specfic 3D shape
NAME
refers to when a protien unfolds and loses thier specfic 3D shape
denatured
Why do protien denature when the temp increases, or the pH drops?
bc that causes the Hydrogen bonds to break
is the process of a protien being denatured reversible?
in most cases
Protiens function depends on a protiens (1)
active site
What is the active site?
where the substrate binds to the protien
NAME
is the place where a substrate binds to the protien
active site
What two types of protiens are always involved in the normal functionings of the cell?
(1)molecular chaperones (2)enzymes
What are molecular chaperones?
is a class of unrelated globular protiens found in all cells
NAME
is a class of unrelated globular protiens found in all cells
molecular chaperones
Molecular chaperones are also called (1)
chaperonins
(1) are also called chaperonins
molecular chaperones
What are some of the four specfic functions that are molecular chaperonins performes? (4)
(1)prevent accidental, premature, or incorrect folding of the polypeptide chains (2)aid the desired folding and assocation process (3)help to translocate protiens and certain metal ions across the membrane (4)promote the breakdown of damaged or denatured protiens
The first molecular chaperones discovered where called (1)
heat shock protiens
It is now clear that (1) are virtually important to cel function in all types of stressful circumstances
molecular chaperones
Some protiens are (1), and others are (2)
(1)whole (2)made up of two parts
What are the holoenzyme parts?
(1)apoenzyme (2)cofactor
NAME
is a enzyme made up of two parts: apoenzyme and the cofactor
holoenzyme
What is the holoenzyme?
consists of the apoenzyme and the cofactor
What is the apoenzyme?
the protien portion of the holoenzyme
NAME
is the protien portion of the holoenzyme
apoenzyme
What is coenzyme?
is a type of organic cofactor that is derived from vitamins
NAME
is a type of organic cofactor that is derived from vitamins
coenzyme
NAME (2)
is what binds to the apoenzyme
cofactor or coenzyme
Most enzymes are named for the (1) and end in (2)
(1)the chemical reactions they catalyse (2)ase
NAME
is a certain amount of energy that is required to be absorbed for the reaction to begin
Activation energy
What is the activation energy?
is a certain amount of energy that is required to be absorbed for the reaction to begin
What are the three steps involed in enzyme activity?
(1)the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme (2)the enzyme substrate coplex undergoes internal rearrangements that form the product (3)the enzyme release the product of the reaction
Enzymes are specfic for thier (1)
substrate
NAME
are the largest molecules of the body
nucleic acids
Nucleic acids are the (1) moelcules in the body
largest
What are nucleic acids made up of ( 3)?
(1)H, (2)N (3)P
NAME
are structral units of nucleic acids
nucleotides
What are nucleotides?
are structural units of nucleic acids
What are the diffe types of nucleotides? (2)
(1)purines (2)pyrmidines
What are the purines?
(1)are large two ring bases
NAME
are large two ring bases
purines
NAME
are smaller single ring bases
pyrimidines
What are pyrimidines?
are smaller single ring bases
Which nucleotides are part of the pyrimidines? (2)
(1)A (2)G
Which nucleotides are part of the purines?(3)
(1)C (2)T (3)U
the stepwise synthesis of a nucleotide involves the attachment of a base to the pentose sugar to form a (1)
nucleoside
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribosenucleic acid
What does RNA stand for?
ribonucleic acid
What are the two roles of DNA?
(1)replication (2)privide instructions for building protiens
RNA carries out the order issued by (1)
DNA
T is only for (1)
DNA
U is only for (1)
RNA
The whole molecule of DNA is coiled into a spiral staircase called (1)
double helix
A and T also G and C are called (1)
complementary bases
What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine triphosphate
energy is relased during glucose catabolism is coupled to (1)
ATP
How do cells use ATP's enrergy?
by using enzymes to transfer the terminal phosphate group from ATP to other compounds
What does ADP stand for?
Adenosine diphosphate
What is the formula to get engergy from ATP?
H2O
ATP = ADP + Pi + energy
H2O
w/ out (1)molecules cannot be made or degraded, cells annot transport substances across the membrane, muscles cannot shorten to tug on other structures and life processes cease
ATP