• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/31

Click to flip

31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does ANS stand for?
Autonomic Nervous System
What is the etymology of autonomic?
 Autos = auto
 Nomos = law
By definition the ANS is purely ________
Motor
How does transmission of a signal from the
CNS to an effector differ between the
somatic and autonomic divisions of the
nervous system (just the most basic
difference)?
It travels through 2 neurons in the ANS, only 1 in the somatic division.
What do we call the first neuron in an ANS
pathway?
Pre-ganglionic neuron
Describe a Pre-ganglionic neuron's axons
Myelinated
What do we call the second neuron in an
ANS pathway?
Ganglionic neuron
What do we call the axons of the second
neuron? Describe them.
 Post-ganglionic axons
 Unmyelinated
What are the two major divisions of the ANS?
 Sympathetic
 Parasympathetic
What is the anatomically based name for the sympathetic division?
Thoracolumbar
What is the functional (laymen’s) name for the sympathetic division?
Fight-or-flight
Where are the cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetic neurons located?
Lateral horns (of spinal cord) from T1 – L2
What neurotransmitter is generally released by sympathetic post-ganglionic axons?
Norepinephrine
What are the two types of ganglia in the
sympathetic division and where are they
located?
Sympathetic trunk ganglia
 Parallel to vertebral column

Collateral ganglia
 Anterior to abdominal aorta
What carries sympathetic signals from the
spinal nerve to the sympathetic trunk?
White ramus communicans
What carries sympathetic signals, destined
for glands or peripheral blood vessels in the
body wall, which return to a spinal nerve for
distribution?
Gray ramus communicans
How do sympathetic impulses destined for
areas outside region of sympathetic impulse
origination (T1-L2) get to their target?
 Originate from T1-L2
 Enter the sympathetic trunk
 Travel through additional ganglia
 Every spinal nerve has a gray ramus
What do we call the nerves that carry fibers
that have passed through the sympathetic
trunk without synapsing to the collateral
ganglia where they will synapse prior to
innervating abdominopelvic viscera?
Splanchnic nerves
What are the names of the 3 collateral
ganglia?
 Celiac
 Superior mesenteric
 Inferior mesenteric
What endocrine organ is composed of short
post-ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic
division and what neurotransmitters (that
act as hormones) are released?
Adrenal medulla
What are some of the effects of sympathetic
stimulation?
 Increased alertness
 Increased cardiac and respiratory activity
 Increase muscle tone
 Energy mobilization
 Dilate pupils
 Constrict peripheral and visceral vessels
 Stimulate sweat and arrector pili muscles
 Ejaculation
What is the functional (laymen’s) name for
the parasympathetic division?
Rest-and-digest
What is the anatomically based name for the
parasympathetic division?
Craniosacral division
Where are the cell bodies of the preganglionic
parasympathetic neurons
located?
 Brainstem
 S2-S4
What cranial nerves transmit
parasympathetic impulses?
 Oculomotor
 Facial
 Glossopharyngeal
 Vagus
What neurotransmitter is generally released
by parasympathetic post-ganglionic axons?
Ach – acetylcholine
Where are the ganglia located in the
parasympathetic division?
Near or in the wall of the target organ
What are some of the effects of
parasympathetic stimulation?
 Constrict pupils
 Secretion from digestive glands
 Increase GI motility
 Constrict respiratory passages
 Reduction of heart rate
 Arousal
What region of the brain has the most direct
control over the ANS?
Hypothalamus
What region of the brain contains
autonomic reflex centers that control things
such as cardiovascular and respiratory
activity, pupil size, digestive secretion, and
peristalsis?
Medulla oblongata
What aspect of the brain (linked to the
hypothalamus) links emotion and autonomic
function?
Limbic system