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62 Cards in this Set

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Peripheral nervous system
the nervous system structures that reside outside the brain and spinal cord.
How many cranial nerves are there? What are there names?
12;

Olfactory
Optic
Occulomotor
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Abducens
Facial
Vestibulocochlear
Glossopharangeal
Vagus
Accessory
Hypoglossal
What is the Mnemonic to memeorize the Cranial Nerves.
Oh, Once One Takes The Anatomy Final, Very Good Vacations Are Heavenly
what is the mnemonic for the Cranial Nerves' functions?
S= Sensory M= motor B= both

Some
Say
Mary
Money
BUT
My
Brother
Says
BIG
Brains
Mean
More
Cranial Nerve I

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Olfactory

Sensory

Smelling

Olfactory foramina
Cranial Nerve II

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Optic Nerves

Sensory

Vision

Optic foramina
Cranial Nerve III

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Occulomotor nerves

Motor

Controls all eye movements with the exception of two of the eyes' muscles.

Superior orbital fissure
What two eye muscles does the Occulomotor cranial nerve not control?
Superior oblique and lateral rectus.
Cranial Nerve IV

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Trochlear

Motor

Motor impulses (and also innervates the superior oblique eye muscles)

superior orbital fissure
Cranial Nerve V

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Trigeminal

Both (Sensorimotor)
Sensory- Mouth, tongue, face
Motor- chewing

Allows us to chew and sense feedback from face, mouth and tongue. DOES NOT SENSE TASTE!

Superior orbital fissure, foramen rotondum, foramen ovale
The trigeminal cranial nerve is the...
THICKEST of all the cranial nerves (does not sense TASTE!)
Cranial Nerve VI

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Abducens nerve

Motor

Controls lateral rectus which alloes eyes to ABduct.

Superior orbital fissure
Cranial Nerve VII

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Facial Nerves

Sensorimotor
Sensory- Taste for the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
Motor- facial expressions

Taste and facial expression

Stylomastoid foramen
As previously mentioned the facial cranial nerve allows us to sense tastes from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. Thus what TASTES can we sense?
SWEET AND SALTY
Cranial Nerve VIII

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Vestibulocochlear

Sensory

balance and hearing

Internal Acousic meatus
Cranial Nerve IX

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Glossopharangeal nerve

Sensorimotor

Sensory- proprioception and posterior 1/3 taste buds
Motor- swallowing (not chewing)

Jugular foramen
The glossopharangeal is a cranial nerve that is made up of
3 nerves in one.
the glossopharangeal cranial nerve allows us to sense what TASTES?
Sour and bitter.
Cranial Nerve X

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Vagus nerves

Sensorimotor

Sensory- Taste buds (again posterior 1/3) and visceral proprioception
Motor- swallowing, speech and visceral movement

Jugular foramen
Cranial Nerve X

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Vagus nerves

Sensorimotor

Sensory- Taste buds (again posterior 1/3) and visceral proprioception
Motor- swallowing, speech and visceral movement

Jugular foramen
Cranial Nerve X

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Vagus nerves

Sensorimotor

Sensory- Taste buds (again posterior 1/3) and visceral proprioception
Motor- swallowing, speech and visceral movement

Jugular foramen
Cranial Nerve XI

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Accessesory nerves

Motor

Controls neck muscles

Jugular foramen
Cranial Nerve XII

Name:
Category:
Primary Function:
Hole to the brain:
Hypoglossal nerve

Motor

Controls tongue movement

Hypoglossal canal
The vagus nerve is also the...
longest of the cranial nerves.
The peripheral nervous system contains cranial nerves as well as _____.
Spinal nerves
How many spinal nerves are there? how are they broken into classes?
31

8 - Cervical
12- Thoracic
5 - lumbar
5 - sacral
1- coccygeal
why are there 8 cervical nerves and only 7 cervical vertebrae?
the first cervical spine lays superior to the C1 vertebrae while the last cervical nerve exits inferior to the C7 vertebrae.
Below the cervical region what is the pattern of spinal nerve and vertebrae?
Beneath the cervical spine the spinal nerve exits just inferior to its paired vertebrae.
Spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord via 2 routes what are they and what does each route carry?
Ventral and dorsal roots

Ventral- motor (after brain)
Dorsal- sensory (before brain)
Are ALL spinal nerves are sensory or motor?
None, All are both. sensorimotor.
The dorsal root contains _____________ fibers arising from cell bodies in the ______________, whereas the ventral root contains _________ fibers coming from the ________________________.
sensory;
dorsal root ganglion;

motor
anterior gray column of the spinal cord.
• Dorsal and ventral roots come together to make a spinal nerve when the roots later split off they form…
Dorsal and ventral rami
Dorsal and ventral rami

-What kind of nerve is each (sensory, motor, both)
-Where does each go
- what information does each recieve?
Mixed nerve (sensorimotor)

Dorsal- toward posterior
Ventral- toward anterior

Dorsal- recieves sensory info from the skin over the spine on a person's BACK

Ventral- recieves sensory info from skin on the anterior and lateral parts of the body
The ventral ramus also combine and innervate...
the limbs.
A network of nerves named according to innervated structures or locations...
nerve PLEXUS
Nerve plexus occur in all spinal regions with the exception of what region?
THORACIC

The branching and joining DOES occur in the cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral.
What is the main purpose of nerve plexi?
to innervate the limbs.
Plexuses are formed by ____________.

Why do fibers from different rami crisscross?
Ventral rami.

So that each branch of the plexus is innervated by different nerves and so that each rami travels in different routes. TO PROTECT AGAINST DAMAGE TO LIMB FXN!
The cervical plexus is formed by the VENTRAL RAMI of ________ cervical nerves.
C1-C5
The cervical plexus innervates _________ mostly.

The most important nerve from this plexus is the ________ nerve which innervates the _____________.
cutaneously (The skin of the neck and back of the head)

Phrenic nerve; diaphragm
Why is damage to the cervical plexus and specifically the phrenic nerve so dangerous?
Because damage can cause the failure of the diaphragm and therefore respiratory arrest.
What occurs as a result of abrupt signals from the phrenic nerve on the diaphragm?
Hiccups
the brachial plexus is made up of ventral rami exiting the spinal cord between...
C5 and T1
the brachial plexus gives rise to nearly all nerves that innervate
the upper limb
What are the major nerves of the brachial plexus?
Axilary
Radial
Musculocutaneous
Ulnar
Median
Axilary nerve of the brachial plexus.

- branch of the ______ cord
- muscles innervated
- cutaneous innervations
poserior

Deltoid and teres minor

shoulder
Radial nerve of the brachial plexus.

- branch of the ______ cord
- muscles innervated
- cutaneous innervations
Posterior

All extensors (on the posterior arm)

Hand and RADIAL side of arm
Musculocutaneous nerve of the brachial plexus.

- branch of the ______ cord
- muscles innervated
- cutaneous innervations
Lateral

Arm flexors (biceps brachii, brachialis)

Lateral forearm
What is saturday night paralysis? More importantly what nerve is being blocked?
Saturday night paralysis/crutch paralysis- no movement after your arm is rested and the RADIAL NERVE is being blocked
Ulnar nerve of the brachial plexus.

- branch of the ______ cord
- muscles innervated
- cutaneous innervations
Medial cord

Wrist and hand flexors of the medial side

Medial side (ulnar side)
Median nerve of the brachial plexus.

- branch of the ______ cord
- muscles innervated
- cutaneous innervations
Medial and lateral

the rest of the wrist and hand flexors in the forearm

anterior forearm but not ulnar side (where the ulnar nerve recieves sensory info)
The lumbar plexus of the PNS

- recieves signal from what spinal nerves?
- innervates what general body area?
L1 - L4

lower abdomen and anterior/medial leg
what two major nerves make up the lumbar plexus?
Femoral and Obturator
Femoral nerve of the lumbar plexus.

- muscles innervated
- cutaneous innervations
Motor- quadricep muscles
Sensory- anterior and medial thigh and leg
Obturator nerve of the lumbar plexus.

- muscles innervated
- cutaneous innervations
Motor- innervates the adductors of the INNER thigh

Sensory- inner/medial thigh
The sacral plexus is innervated by what spinal nerves?
L4 - S4
What general structures does the sacral plexus innervate?
lower back, pelvis and posterior leg and foot.
What is the largest branched nerve from the sacral plexus?
The sciatic nerve (THE THICKEST AND LONGEST NERVE IN THE BODY)
The sciatic nerve of the sacral plexus is further branched into what two major branches?
Tibial and peroneal
Tibial branch of the sciatic nerve (of the sacral plexus)

-innervates what muscles (motor)
-innervates what skin (sensory)
Motor- Flexors of the leg and thigh (Hamstrings and calfs)

Sensory- posterior part of leg, and the plantar surface of the foot.
peroneal branch of the sciatic nerve (of the sacral plexus)

-innervates what muscles (motor)
-innervates what skin (sensory)
Motor- the anterior and lateral portion of the leg and dorsal surface of the foot

Sensory- anterior and lateral portion of the leg and dorsal suface of the foot
-Topographical map of a human
-Tells us what sensory nerve receives input for where.
-50% overlap in the torso spinal nerves
DERMATOMES