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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Anatomy
structure of the body, the study of a structure
Palpatation
feeling strcture with fingertips , such as paplating a swollen lymph node or taking a pulse
Physiology
study of a function, the functional processes of the body
Auscultation
listening to the natural sounds made by the body, such as heart and lung sounds
Gross Anatomy
structure that can be seen with the naked eye, whether by surface observation or dissection.
Hypothesis
an informed conjecture that is capable of being tested and potentially falsified by experimentation or data collection
Law of nature
a generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave. Ex: boyles law
theory
Explanatory statement, or set of statements, derived from facts, laws, and confirmed hypotheses.
Scientific Theory
refers to less to observational procedures tan to certain habits of disciplined creatviity, careful obervation, logical thinking, nad hones analysis of one's observations and conclusions
Inductive Method
making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them.
Hypothetico-deductive method
Fist ask a question and formulating a hypothesis.
Percussion
examiner taps on the body and listens to the sound for signs of abnormalities such as pockets of fluid or air
Fact
information that can be independently verified by any trained person.
Evolution
change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms
natural selection
some individuals within a species have hereditary advantages over their competitors. Ex camoflauge
Selected pressures
natural forces that promote the reproducive success of some individuals more than others
Adaptations
are features of an organisms anatomy, physiology, and behavior that have evolved in response to these slection pressures and enable the organism to cope with the challenges of its enviroment
opposable
they could cross the palm to touch the fingertips
prehensible
able to grasp branches by encircling them with the thumb and fingers
Stereoscopic vision
depth perception
Bipedalism
standing and walking on two legs
organism
single complete individual
organ system
group of organs with a unique collective function Ex: circulation
Organ
structure composed of two or more tissue tyeps that work together to carry out a particular function
Tissue
is a mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function. (epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscular
cells
are the smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic fucntions of life nothing smaller is considered alive
organelles
microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions
Molecules
Organelles and other cellular components are composed of these
Reductionism
the theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components
Holism
complementary theory that ther are emergent properties of the whole organsim that cannot be predictred form the properties of its separate parts. human beings are more than the sum of their parts. not only treat a disease but the person too
Organization
living things exhibit a far higher level of organization than the nonliving world around them.
Metabolism
is the sum of all this internal change.
anabolism
relatively complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones
catabolism
relatively complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones
excretion
the separation of wastes from the tissues and their elimination from the body
differentiation
the transformation of cells with no specialized function into cless that are committed to a particular task
dynamic equilibrium
balanced change
set point
average value for a given variable. ex 37C for body temp and fluctuates around it
negative feedback
a process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it
feedback loops
alter the original changes that triggered something like body temp
vasodialation
widening of the blood vessels
vasoconstriction
narrowing of the blood vessels
receptor
structure that senses a change in the body
integrating control center
mechanism that processes this information, relates it to other available information and makes a decision abou what the appropriate response should be
effector
structure that carries out the response that restores homeostasis
positive feedback
is a self amplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction