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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the sum of all chemical reactions within the body
-are proteins whcih catalyze or speed chemical reactions
-each has a substrate
chemical that an enzyme causes a reaction with.
Substrate for Amylase
synthesis reaction from simple to complex that requires energy
Dehydration Synthesis
monosaccharide (-H)
+monosaccharide (-HO)
decomposition reaction from complex to simple that releases energy
Hydrogen combines with pyruvic acid it becomes...
lactic acid
a burning tool to burn molecules apart to release energy
Step 1 of Glycolysis
Phosphorylation of 6-carbon glucose molecule
Gross and Net of Glycolysis
4 and 2 ATP
Aerobic Cellular Respiration
-oxygen must be available in sufficient quantity to turn on the mitochondrioa
-pyruvic acid enters citric acid cycle to form 1 ATP per pyruvic acid
-NADH & FADH(Bus)deliver Hydrogen to the Electron Transport Chain creating 32-34 ATP
-makes more energy than others put together without making waste
-mitochondria pushes pyruvic acid through the citric acid cycle
Pyruvic Acid is converted into
Acetic Acid
Acetic acid is converted to
Acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetic acid =
Citric Acid(Go-Juice)
Each turn of the acid cycle produces
The 8 Acids starting with Citric Acid
Citric Acid
Alpha Ketoglutaric Acid
Succinyl CoA
Succinic Acid
Fumaric Acid
Oxaloacetic Acid
Where does aerobic cellular energy take place?
NADH & FADH act as buses of what substances
Which energy system provides about 10 seconds of energy thanks to stored ATP and Creatine Phosphate?
Which energy system produces the most energy with the least amount of waste?
Electron Transport Chain
What is the function of RNApolymerase?
cuts open the DNA
What substance produced during anaerobic energy metabolism is transformed into acetyl CoA by enzymes within the mitochondria?
What are the codons/building blocks of protein synthesis?
3 nucleotides for RNA and DNA
Transcription occurs in
Translation occurs in
cytoplasm near ribosome and ends with a new protein
Nucleotide Sequence...
spells out the names of specific amino acids and in what sequence to connect them
The amino acid sequence
determines the shape of a protein(conformation)
A proteins shape determines
its function
Four Tissue Types
Epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve
Epithelial Tissues:
-protect, secret, absorb and excretes.
-covers body surface and line internal organs
-lack blood vessles, divide easily and are tightly packed
How many layers are in simple squamous
-single layer of flattened cells
Function of Simple Squamous
Filtration, Diffusion, Osmosis, covers surface
Location of Simple Squamous
Air sacs of lungs, walls of capillaries, linings of blood and lymph vessels
How many layers are in Simple Cuboidal
single layer of cube shaped cells
Function of Simple Cuboidal
Secretion, Absorption
Location of Simple Cuboidal
surface of ovaries, linings of kidney tubules, and linings of ducts of certain glands
How many layers are in simple columnar
single layer of elongated cells
Function of simple columnar
Protection, secretion, absorption
Location of simple columnar
linings of uterus, stomach and intestines
How many layers are in pseudostratified columnar
single layer of elongated cells
Function of pseudostratified columnar
protection, secretion, movement of mucus and substances
Location of pseudostratified
linings of respiratory passages
Layers of Stratified Squamous
many layers, top cells flattened
Function of Stratified Squamous
Location of Stratified Squamous
outer layer of skin, linings of oral cavity, vagina and anal canal
Layers of Stratified Cuboidal
2-3 layers of cube shaped cells
Function of Stratified Cuboidal
Location of stratified cuboidal
linings of larger ducts of mammary glands, swear glands, salivary glands, and pancreas
Layers of Stratified Columnar
Top layer of elongated cells, lower layers of cube-shaped cells
function of stratified columnar
protection, secretion
location of stratified columnar
part of the male urethra and party of the pharynx
layers of transitional
many layers of cube shaped and elongated cells
function of transitional
distensibility, protection
location of transitional
inner lining of urinary bladder and linings of ureters and part of urethra
glandular epithelium
-salivary glands, sweat glands, endocrine glands
function of loose connective tissue
binds organs, holds tissue fluids
location of loose connective tissue
beneath the skin, between muscles, beneath epithelial tissues
function of adipose tissue
protects, insulates, and stores fat
location of adipose tissue
beneath the skin, around the kidneys, behind the eyeballs, on the surface of heart
function of reticular
location of reticular
walls of liver, splee, and lymphatic organs
function of dense connective
binds organs
location of dense connective
tendons, ligaments, dermis
function of elastic connective
provides elastic quality
location of elastic connective
connecting parts of the spinal column, in walls of arteries and airways
function of hyaline cartilage
supports, protects, provides framework
location of hyaline cartilage
ends of bones, nose, and rings in walls of respiratory passages
function of elastic cartilage
supports, protects, provides flexible framework
location of elastic cartilage
outter ear and part of larynx
function of fibrocartilage
shock absorber
location of fibrocartilage
between bony parts of spinal column, parts of pelvic girdle and knee
location and function of bone
-bones of skeleton, middle ear
-supports, protects, provides framework
location and function of blood
-throughout the body within a closed system of blood vessels and heart chambers
-transports gases, defends against diseases, clotting
Cardiac Muscle
-1 nucleus
-intercalated discs
Skeletal Muscle
Smooth Muscle
-lacks striations
-1 nucleus
-digestive system
-arrector pilli muscle
excitable message sending to cells of nervous tissue
Neuroglial Cells
smaller than neurons and care takers of the larger cell type, the neurons
fires chemical messages, communicates with glands and muscles
recievers of chemical messages, has hairlike projections to increase the surface area.
stimulate other neurons, output
sensory neurons
hardening of cells
Vitamin D
catilage snot
shock absorber for knee
shock absorber of back
Stratum Basale/Germinativum
closest to basement membrane
-the nursery
Stratum Corneum
outer most layers of epidermis
-dead cells
provide pigments
lose of body heat w/ cool object
heat rises, replaced by cold air
radiate heat into the environment
bringing moisture to the surface of body with air flow