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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Smallest units of Matter are ______.
atoms
Two or more atoms combine to form a ___________.
molecule
Large molecules join in specific ways to form _____.
Cells
____________, are the basic units of structure and function in organisms.
Cells
___________, are precise organizations of similar cells that perform specialized functions.
Tissues
The four types of tissues are:
1). Epithelial Tissue
2). Connective Tissue
3). Muscle Tissue
4). Nervous Tissue
_______, contain two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific functions.
Organs
The _______ _________ _______, consists of related organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve a common function.
Organ System Level
Everything is made up of ________.
Matter
The atoms that make up our mass are:
Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Hydrogen
The four macromolecules that make up organelles are:
1). Proteins
2). Carbohydrates
3). Lipids
4). Nucleic Acid
Define: Cytology
study of cells
Define: Histology
study of tissues
Define: Anatomy
study of structure
What does Anatomy mean?
To cut something up
Several properties or features that are common to all organisms are:
1). Organization
2). Metabolism
3). Growth and Development
4). Responsiveness
5). Regulation
6). Reproduction
Provides protection, regulates body temperature, site of cutaneous receptors, synthesizes vitamin D, prevents water loss
Integumentary System (skin)
Provides support and movement
Skeletal System
Produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract
Muscular System
Controls body movement. Helps with Integration and coordination.
Nervous System
Uses chemical messengers to maintain homeostasis
Endocrine System
Transports things to and from the cells
Cardiovascular System
Transports and filters fluids away from the cells (one-way)
Lymphatic System
Absorbs oxygen and excretes carbon dioxide. Helps maintain homeostasis
Respiratory System
Absorbs nutrients, excretes wastes that are not able to be digested.
Digestive System
Filters the blood and removes waste products from the blood. Absorbs, reabsorbs.
Urinary System
Produces sex cells
Male or Female Reproductive System
Specific body position in which an individual stands upright w/ the feet parallel and flat on the floor. The body is upright, forearms are positioned so palms are facing forward.
Anatomic Position
Vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Coronal Plane
cuts perpendicularly along the long axis of the body or organ. Body or organ is separated into both superior and inferior parts.
Transverse Plane
extends through the body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right and left halves.
Sagittal Plane
Plane that passes through the specimen at an angle.
Oblique Plane
ADT: In front of; toward the front surface
Anterior (EX: The stomach is anterior to the spinal cord)
ADT: In back of; toward the back surface
Posterior (EX: The hear is posterior to the sternum)
ADT: At the back side of the human body
Dorsal (EX: The spinal cord is on the dorsal side of the body)
ADT: At the belly side of the human body
Ventral (EX: The umbilicus (belly button) is on the ventral side of the body)
ADT: Toward the head or above
Superior (EX: The chest is superior to the pelvis)
ADT: Toward the feet not head
Inferior (EX: The stomach is inferior to the heart)
ADT: At the rear or tail end
Caudal (EX: The abdomen is caudal to the head)
ADT: At the head end
Cranial (EX: The head is cranial to the trunk)
ADT: Toward the midline of the body
Medial (EX: The lungs are medial to the shoulders)
ADT: Away from the midline of the body
Lateral (EX: The arms are lateral to the heart)
ADT: On the inside, underneath another structure
Deep (EX: Muscles are deep to the skin)
ADT: On the outside
Superficial (EX: The external edge of the kidney is superficial to its internal structure)
ADT: Closest to point of attachment to the trunk
Proximal (EX: The elbow is proximal to the hand)
ADT: Furthest from point of attachment to trunk
Distal (EX: The wrist is distal to the elbow)
Includes the head, neck, and trunk; it forms the main vertical axis of our body.
Axial Region
Limbs, appendages, attach to the body's axis and make up the _______ _________.
Appendicular Region
Formed by the cranium and houses the brain
Cranial Cavity
Formed by the individual bones of the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord
Vertebral Canal
The serous membrane is composed of two layers, the _________ layer and ___________ layer.
Parietal; Visceral
Lines the internal surface of the body wall
Parietal Layer
Covers the external surface of organs within the cavity
Visceral Layer
thin, moist, delicate membranes. Isolates and reduces friction.
Serous membrane
Serous membrane that surrounds the heart
Pericardium
moist, two-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity
peritoneum
Superior region in the middle column, typically contains part of the liver, stomach, etc.
Epigastric Region
Middle region in the middle column, typically contains colon, small intestine, etc.
Umbilical Region
Inferior region in the middle column, typically contains part of the small intestine, bladder, etc
Hypogastric Region
superior region lateral to the epigastric region. typically contains liver, gallbladder, etc.
Right & Left hypocondriac region
Middle regions lateral to the umbilical region
Right and left Lumbar regions
the inferior regions lateral to the hypogastric region.
Right and left iliac regions
state of equilibrium, or constant interval environment in the body
Homeostasis
four areas of the abdominopelvic cavity that are formed by passing one vertical and one horizontal line through the navel.
Abdominopelvic Quadrant
nine areas in the abdominiopelvic cavity that are formed by two transverse planes and two parasagittal planes
Abdominopelvic Regions
outer limits of the cell
cell membrane
all cellular contents located between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; stores nutrients and dissolved solutes
cytoplasm
three components of the cytoplasm are
cytosol, organelles, and inclusions
cell's control center. controls protein synthesis and directs the functional and structural characteristics of the cell
nucleus
provides support for organelles
cytosol
carries out specific metabolic activities of the cell
organelles
Name all the "Membrane-Bound" Organelles
Rough ER, Smooth ER, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Mitochondria, and Nucleus
Name all the "Non-Membrane" Organelles
Ribosomes, Cytoskeleton, Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments, Microtubules, Cetrosome, Centrioles, Cilia, Flagellum, Microvilli, and Inclusions
fixed ribosomes; produces proteins. surrounds the nucleus
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
interconnected membrane sacs; has no ribosomes so it does not produce proteins. instead produces lipids
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
modifies, segregates, and stores proteins
Golgi Apparatus
produces ATP. "Powerhouse" of the cell
Mitochondria
Digest materials or microbes ingested by the cell
Lysosomes
detoxifies toxins; converts hydrogen peroxide formed during metabolism to water
Peroxisomes
cell control center. controls all genetic information. inside is DNA
Nucleus
loosely coiled DNA
chromatin
produces Proteins
Ribosomes
the only function during Mitosis. Splits up chromosomes during nuclear division.
Centrioles
Increase the surface area of absorption. Only certain cells have this.
Microvilli
Move substances across cell surface
Cilia
propelles sperm cell
Flagellum
store materials
Inclusions
provides structural support; helps cells move and provides structural support
Cytoskeleton
Materials that are insoluble in water
Lipids
Lipids which contain both water-soluble and water-insoluble regions
Phospholipids
a type of lipid called a steroid
Cholesterol
lipids with attached carbohydrate groups
Glycolipids
complex, diverse molecules composed of chains of smaller molecules called amino acids.
Proteins
Molecules that are important for functional or metabolic activities in the cell
Enzymes
What are the four Functions of the Plasma Membrane?
1). Communication
2). Intercellular Connection
3). Physical Barrier
4). Selective Permeability
Substances move across a plasma membrane without the expenditure of energy by the cell
Passive Transport
the tendency of molecules to move down their concentration gradient; molecules move from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration
Diffusion
Molecules are spread out evenly into the available space on each side of the membrane
Equilibrium
When substances move across membranes unaided b/c they are either small or nonpolar
Simple Diffusion
type of passive transport in which water diffuses from one side of the selectively permeable membrane to the other
Osmosis
liquids that have substances
Solvents
Movement of a substance across a plasma membrane against a concentration gradient, so materials are moved from an area or low concentration to an area of high concentration
Active Transport
means by which large molecules are secreted from the cell
Exocytosis
cellular uptake of large particulate substances and macromolecules is called________.
endocytosis
What are the three forms of Endocytosis?
1). Phagocytosis
2). Pinocytosis
3). Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Movement of materials too large to pass through membrane channels
Facilitated Diffusion
Movement of solvents and solutes from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Bulk Filtration
(low to high) Transport of ions across the membrane against a concentration gradient by transmembrane protein pumps
Ion Pumps
Enormous macromolecule that contains the genetic material of the cell
DNA
Series of events cell undergoes from time cell is made until it is produced
Cell Cycle
90% of cell cycle; when cell grows and stays here
Interphase
Division of the nucleus
Mitosis
First gap phase: Growth Phase
G1 phase
Nuclear DNA is replicated
S Phase
Second gap phase; Brief growth period for production of cell division enzymes
G2 phase
Chromatin threads appear due to coiling and condensation; nuclear envelope disappears; centrioles move toward opposing cell poles
Prophase
Chromosomes line up at the equatorial plate of the cell
Metaphase
Centromeres that held chromatid pairs together separate
Anaphase
Chromosomes arrive at cellular poles and stop moving; Nucleoli reappear
Telophase