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39 Cards in this Set

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What are the 11 systems of the human body?
1) Integumentary
2) Skeletal
3) Muscular
4) Endocrine
5) Nervous
6) Digestive
7) Urinary
8) Cardiovascular
9) Lymphatic
10) Respiratory
11) Reproductive
Integumentary system?
Skin, hair, sweat/oil glands

Protects the body, regulate body temp, eliminates some waste, Vitamin D, detects sensations
Skeletal system?
Bones, joints, assoc. cartilage

Supports/protects the body, SA for muscle attachment, body movement, produce blood cells, stores minerals/lipids
Muscular system?

Body movement, generate heat, stabilize
Nervous system?
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, special sense organs

Generates action potential, regulates body activities, interprets internal/external changes, cause muscle/gland contractions and secretions
Endocrine system?
Hormone producing glands

Regulates body activities by releasing hormones
Digestive system?
Organs of GI tract

Chemical and physical breakdown of food, absorbs nutrients, eliminates solid waste
Cardiovascular system?
Blood, heart, BV

Pump blood through BV, carries oxygen and nutrients to cells, regulates acid base, temperature, water, helps defend against disease, repair BV
Urinary system?
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

Produces, stores, eliminates urine; eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood, maintains acid base balance of fluids, mineral balance, production of RBC
Lymphatic system?
Lymphatic fluid and vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils

Returns proteins and fluid to blood, carries lipids from GI to blood, protects against disease causing microbes
Reproductive system?

Produce gametes to form a new organism, release hormones to regulate reproduction, stores gametes
Respiratory system?
Lungs, passageways, bronchial tubes in and out of lungs

Transfers oxygen from air to blood and CO2 from blood to air, regulates acid-base balance of fluids, air flowing out of lungs, voice
What are the 6 important life processes?
1) Metabolism
2) Responsiveness
3) Movement
4) Growth
5) Differentiation (of cells)
6) Reproduction
Components of a feedback system (3)?
1) Receptor
2) Control center
3) Effector
Negative Feedback
Reverses a change in a controlled condition

Ex: blood pressure
Positive Feedback
Strengthens or reinforces a change in one of the body's controlled conditions. It must be shut off externally, or it'll runaway.

Ex: childbirth
What are the 4 body cavities?
1) Cranial

2) Vertebral

3) Thoracic: pleural, pericardial, mediastinum

4) Abdominopelvic: abdominal, pelvic
What are the 4 types of body tissues?
1) Epithelial
2) Connective
3) Muscular
4) Nervous
1) Epithelial: covers surfaces, lines hollow cavities, forms glands

2) Connective: protects and supports, binds organs, stores as fat, provides immunity

3) Muscular: physical force for movement and heat

4) Nervous: detects changes in environment (in/external), activates muscle contract, gland secretion
What are the 3 primary germ layers and what tissues do they form?
1) Endoderm: epithelial
2) Ectoderm: epithelial & nervous
3) Mesoderm: epithelial, connective, muscle
What are the 5 cell junctions?
1) Tight
2) Gap
3) Adherens
4) Desmosomes
5) Hemidesmosomes
1) Tight: closed door (stomach lining, urinary bladder)

2) Gap: connexon tunnels (nerves, muscles, embryos)

3) Adherens (Anchoring): contains plaque, cadherins join the cells. RESISTS SEPARATION

4) Desmosomes: like adheren junction but plaque isn't attached to microfilaments but attached to intermediate filaments (keratin). Prevents separation under tension (skin, heart cells). CELL TO CELL

5) Hemidesmosomes: like desmosomes but don't link adjacent cells. Instead of cadherins, the integrins are attaching to the intermediate filaments and also attaches to basement membrane's laminin. CELL TO BASAL MEMBRANE
The two types of epithelial tissue are?
1) Covering/lining epithelium

2) Glandular epithelium
Covering/lining epithelium classification by layers?
1) Covering/Lining
-Simple: diffusion, absorb, filter, secrete, osmosis. SINGLE LAYER

-Pseudostratified: may have cilia, goblet cells for secretion. UNEVEN SINGLE LAYER

-Stratified: protects. MULTIPLE LAYERS
Covering/lining epithelium classification by cell shape?
-Squamous: rapid passage. FLAT TILES

-Cuboidal: secretion and absorption. CUBE OR HEXAGONAL

-Columnar: protects, secrete/absorbs a lot. RECTANGULAr

-Transitional: stretching and collapsing. FLAT TO CUBOIDAL
Two classifications of glandular epithelium?
1) Endocrine: enters the interstitial fluidand difffuses directly into bloodstream without flowing through duct (pituitary, thyroid, adrenal)

2) Exocrine: secrete their products into duct and empty on surface of skin or organ (sweat, mucous, saliva -- pancreas, ovaries)
Structural classifications of glandular epithelium?
Unicellular vs. Multicellular

-Tubular: large intestine glands
-Branched Tubular: gastric glands
-Coiled tubular: sweat
-Acinar (rounded): penile urethra glands
-Branched acinar: sebaceous glands

-Tubular: bulbourethral glands
-Acinar: mammary
-Tubuloacinar: acinar glands of pancreas
Functional classifications of glandular epithelium (3)?
1) Merocrine
2) Apocrine
3) Holocrine
1) Merocrine: vesicle is secreted (exorcrine glands of body)

2) Apocrine: pinching off (mammary glands, sweat glands)

3) Holocrine: stores then self-explodes (sebaceous gland)
What are the two components of connective tissue?
1) Extracellular matrix

2) Cells
1) ECM consists of protein fibers and ground substance

2) Cells - many types
-Fibroblasts: secretes components of ECM
-Adipocytes: stores triglycerides
-Mast cells: produce histamine which dilates BV, ingests and kills bacteria
-WBC: migrates from blood to CT, fights parasitic infection/allergies
-Macrophages: eats bacteria/cellular debris (can be fixed or wandering)
-Plasma cells: develops from B lymphocytes, secrete antibodies that attack/neutralize foreign substances in the body
What are the two components of ECM?
1) Ground substance

2) Fibers
1) Ground substance: can be fluid, jello, or calicified. Contains: water, polysaccharides and proteins (GAGs)

2) Fibers: collagen, elastic, reticular fibers
Two types of embryonic CT
1) Mesenchyme
2) Mucous CT
3 types of Loose CT
1) Areolar
2) Adipose
3) Reticular CT
3 types of Dense CT
1) Dense regular
2) Dense irregular
3) Elastic CT
3 types of cartilage
1) Hyaline
2) Fibrocartilage
3) Elastic cartilage
Solid type of CT
Bone tissue
2 types of liquid CT
1) Blood tissue
2) Lymph
What are the 3 types of epithelial membranes?
1) Mucous membrane
2) Serous membrane
3) Cutaneous membrane
1) Mucous: lines exterior openings. Serves as barrier against microbes, lubricates. AREOLAR CT

2) Serous: lines cavity not directly open to exterior. AREOLAR CT + SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

3) Cutaneous: superficial skin. KERATINIZED STRATEFIED SQUAMOUS
What is synovial membrane?
Membrane lining the cavity of freely moving joints, not open to exterior. Discontinuous layers of cells. Lubricates to move joints, cleans out debris
What are the 3 types of muscular tissue?
1) Skeletal
2) Cardiac
3) Smooth
1) Skeletal Muscle: attached to bone, striated, voluntary

2) Cardiac: forms wall of heart, involuntary, fiber w/ 1 nucleus

3) Smooth Muscle: walls of hollow internal structures like BV, lung airways, intestines, gallbladder, urinary bladder. Helps with constriction, involuntary, no striations, central nucleus
The two types of nervous tissue cells.
1) Neurons

2) Neuroglia
1) Neurons: sensitive to stimulus, convert stimuli to action potentials. Consists of cell body with dendrites and axons

2) Neuroglia: supportive
How repairable are epithelial tissue? Connective? Muscular? Nervous?
Epithelial = very repairable. Must be able to repair from external wear and tear

CT= good capacity, bone has ample blood supply. Cartilage is less repairable

Muscular= poor capacity, no satellite cells and fibers do not undergo mitosis

Nervous: poorest!