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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the breast lies within which tissue layer?
subcutaneous/superficial fascia (between skin and deep fascia)
how many lobes are typically present in a breast?
15-20
what is the name of the structure which drains the lobes of the breast into the nipple?
lactiferous duct
the lobes of the breast are composed of what?
lobules
what is the name for the part of the lobes in the breast that only become active during lactation?
alveoli
the lobular tissue of the breast is supported by fibrous bands called what? To what are these fibrous bands connected?
suspensory ligaments; dermis
what is the name for the space between the breast tissue and the deep fascia? What does this space permit?
retromammary space; movement of the breast over the thoracic wall
which quadrant of the breast extends toward the axilla? What is another name for this quadrant?
upper outer quadrant; axillary tail of Spence
what is the name for the area surrounding the nipple?
areola
which type of glands does the areola contain?
sebaceous
which 3 arteries supply the breast with blood?
internal thoracic artery, branches of the axillary artery, and intercostal arteries
lymphatic drainage from the breast goes where?
axillary lymph nodes, parasternal nodes and sometimes into opposite breast
which joints identify the two ends of the clavicle?
sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular
what is another term for the sternal angle?
angle of Louis
with which costal cartilage does the sternal angle articulate?
2nd
how many ribs compose the rib cage?
12
by what is the thoracic cavity separated from the abdominal cavity?
diaphragm
what is special about the superior part of the abdominal cavity?
it is located within the inferior portion of the thoracic cage
how many pairs of real ribs are present in the rib cage? False ribs? Floating ribs?
7; 5; 2
what is the name for the space between ribs?
intercostal space
how many layers of muscle lie in the intercostal space? What are their names?
3; internal intercostal, external intercostal, innermost
with what are the lungs covered?
simple squamous epitheial membrane and visceral pleura
what are the names of the 2 pleurae found in the thoracic cavity? Where is each found?
visceral and parietal pleurae; visceral is on surface of lungs, parietal is on internal surface of thoracic cavity (along ribs and intercostal space)
what characterizes the space between the two layers of pleura in the thoracic cavity?
pleural cavity/space which contains serous fluid (very important clinically)
what is the name for the areas where the parietal pleura reflects on the diaphragm and the mediastinum?
pleural reflection
what is a pleural recess?
area at pleural reflection where the two parietal pleural areas are in contact with each other without any intervening lung tissue
how many lobes are present in the right lung? The left lung?
3; 2
what are the names for the fissures of the right and left lungs?
right - oblique and horizontal; left - oblique
the upper lobes lie __________ and _____________ to and the lower lobes ________ and __________ to the diagonal oblique fissures.
superior; anterior; inferior; posterior
the middle lobe of the right lung lies __________ and __________ between the oblique and horizontal fissures
lateral; anterior
what is the name for the subdivision of the lung lobes?
segments
the trachea branches into what?
main bronchus
the main bronchi divide into what?
lobar bronchi
the lobar bronchi in each respective lobe branch into what?
segmental bronchi
pulmonary arteries travel where in the lungs?
alongside the bronchi into each lung segment
where do the pulmonary veins travel in the lungs?
between adjacent lung segments, draining both
what is the role of bronchial arteries? From where do they branch?
supply the bronchi and supporting structures with blood; aorta
which, inspiration or expiration, is caused by the contraction of the diaphragm?
inspiration
the intercostal muscles move the ribs __________ and ___________ upon inspiration?
lateral; anterior
is expiration passive or active?
passive
in expiration, the diaphragm relaxes, moving superiorly or inferiorly?
superiorly
what is responsible for expeling air out of the lungs?
inherent elasticity of the lung tissue itself
forced expirations (coughing, etc) require which muscles?
abdominal wall musculature
what is the term for the lines running down the body of the female along which nipples or breast tissue may occur?
milk lines
what is the role of the sebaceous glands of the breast?
to secrete protective lubricant during lactation
what is the name for the area of tissue supplied by one duct?
lobe
what is the name for the area of the duct near the nipple where milk is kept?
lactiferous sinus
what morphology of suspensory ligaments of Cooper is often seen in breast cancer patients?
pitting
what is the main constituent of the breast?
fat
what is the term used for the ribs swinging up? For the sternum moving forward?
bucket handle; pump handle
ribs articulate with which vertebrae?
that of the same rib and the one above (superior and inferior demi-facet)
if going into the intercostal space, where should one focus the needle?
just superior to the rib
do the lungs stop at the clavicle?
no, part of the lungs extend above the clavicle (important for stab wounds in that area)
what is a pneumothorax?
where there is air present in the pleural space
when you inspire, do you create positive or negative pressure in the pleural space?
negative
what is the name for the only location where things can enter and leave the lung?
root, hilum
the thoracic duct is responsible for lymph drainage on which side?
left
intercostal nerves and arteries pass between which layers of muscle in the intercostal space?
internal intercostal and innermost
anterior intercostal arteries are branches of which artery?
internal thoracic
on which lung is the lingula located?
left