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241 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what type of joint is the sternoclavicular joint?
synovial (saddle)
what vertebrae is the munubrium of the sternum opposite? body? zyphoid process?
T3-T4; T5-T9; T10
what is special about the zyphoid process?
it is made of cartilage and gradually ossifies as we age
what is the angle between the sternal body and manubrium called?
sternal angle or the angle of louis
what are the accessory muscles of respiration?
pectoralis major and minor, part of the serratus anterior, scalene muscles
what are the borders of the superior thoracic aperture?
posterior - 1st T vertebrae
lateral - 1st 2 ribes
anterior - superior border of the manubrium
what is the average size of the superior thoracic aperture?
6.2 cm by 11 cm
what is the function of the superior thoracic aperture?
the esophagus, vagus nerves, great vessels, and trachea pass through it into the thorax
what are the borders of the inferior thoracic aperture?
inferior borders of the 11th and 12th ribs, costal cartilages, and the zyphoid process
what passes through the inferior thoracic aperture?
inferior vena cava, abdominal aorta, other nerves, and lymphatics
what part of a typical rib articulates with the body of a T vertebrae? with the transverse process?
head, tubercle
what is the point of the rib that is most likely to be fractured?
the angle
what is located in the inferior costal groove of each rib?
the interior vein, artery, and nerve
the joints between the different parts of the sternum are what type of joints? what about the sternoclavicular and costoclavicular joints?
cartilaginous, synovial
inhalation creates what type of pressure? exhalation?
negative, positive
what is the major muscle of respiration?
the phrenic nerve arises from what spinal nerves?
C3, C4, C5 (4 and 5 principally)
how many muscles are included in the the muscles of the thoracic wall?
11 (for each of the 11 intercostal spaces)
what is the action of external intercostal muscles? internal? innermost?
elevate the ribs; depress the ribs (the costal parts elevate the ribs); unknown (thought to elevate ribs but is debatable)
where are the subcostal muscles? where do they attach?
they are in the posterior thorax, they attach to ribs superiorly and inferiorly, crossing 1 or 2 intercostal spaces
what seperates the thoracic muscles from the pleura of the lungs?
the endothoracic fascia
where is the transversus thoracis muscle? how does it attach?
deep to the sternum; runs from the inferior aspect of the sternum superiorly and laterally crosses several intercostal spaces and attaches to the 2nd through the 6th rib or costal cartilage
patients with end stage COPD or emphysema will use what position to help force air into their lungs?
the tripod position - pressing hands against table
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis means what?
the lungs become fribrotic - patients have to use a lot of accessory muscles to breathe (scalene muscles are well developed)
what 2 arteries supply the thoracic wall?
thoracic aorta and internal thoracic artery (used to be called internal mammary artery - is a branch of the subclavian)
where does the internal thoracic artery change its name? what is the new name?
at the diaphragm, musculophrenic artery
what artery is frequently used in cardiac bypass surgery?
internal thoracic
during a thoracentesis, where is the needle placed? what recess is being accessed?
6-8 intercostal space, costodiaphragmatic recess
what are some symptoms of horners syndrome?
miosis (constricted pupil), partial ptosis, anhidrosis (loss of hemifacial sweating)
what nerve(s) innervate(s) the diaphragm and the central part of the pleura? costal pleura and peripheral part of the diaphragmatic pleura?
phrenic, intercostal nerves
what is a pleural effusion?
the absence of breath sounds caused by a prescence of fluid in the thoracic cavity
what is pneumothorax? how does it usually happen?
air in the lungs, air being introduced into the space between the parietal pleura and visceral pleura when inserting a catheter for a central line
what is pleuracy?
an infection between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura
what attaches to the sternal angle?
the 2nd rib
what is it called when one part of the parietal pleura turns abruptly towards another direction, covering another thing?
pleural reflection
where does the apex of the lung lie?
3 cm superior to the medial 1/3rd of the clavicle
what is the name for the cervical portion of the parietal pleura?
where in the thorax do the 2 parietal pleura approach one another?
between ribs 2-4
what lung has a cardiac notch? where is it located in relation to the ribs?
left, 4th costal cartilage
what are the 3 areas where the pleura dips inferior to the rib cage?
anterior - the pleura of the right lung close to the sternum
posterior - the pleura of both lungs close to the vertebral column
where does the pleura end inferiorly at the midclavicular line? what about the lungs?
8th rib, 6th rib
where does the pleura end inferiorly at the mid-axillary line? what about the lungs?
10th rib, 8th rib
what line is used a lot for thoracocentesis?
where does the pleura end inferiorly at the scapular line? what about the lungs?
just below the 12th rib, 10th rib
where is the horizonal fissure of the right lung located relative to the ribs?
4th rib
where are the oblique fissures of the lungs located relative to the ribs?
6th costal-chondral junction
why is the cardiac notch important?
you can perform pericardiocentesis of the pericardial sac without hitting pleura or lung
what 2 arteries does the internal thoracic artery terminate into?
musculophrenic and superior epigastric
how many cartilage rings are in the trachea?
what is located at the bifurcation of the primary bronchus?
what is absent inferior to the carina?
cough reflex/nerve fibers
what part of the left lung can be equated with the middle lobe of the right lung?
the lingula
what are the 3 primary structures of the root of the lungs?
bronchus, pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein
what is the smallest portion of the lung that can be resected?
the bronchopulmonary segment
how many lobes and BP segments does the right lung have? what about the left?
3, 10; 2, 8
when and why does a bronchi change its name? what does it change its name to? how big is it now?
it becomes a bronchiole when there is no more cartilage. the diameter is about 1 mm
how big are respiratory bronchioles?
what disease causes alveoli to burst resulting in a transparent lung?
what arteries supply the bronchi and connective tissue of the lung?
bronchial arteries
where do the left bronchial arterie(s) arise from? right?
aorta, 3rd posterior intercostal artery
what passes through the center of the BP segment? what courses intersegmentally?
pulmonary and bronchial arteries, pulmonary veins
what lymph structure drains the upper 1/4 of the body? what about the rest of the body?
the right lymphatic duct, thoracic duct
what percent of primary lung cancer occurs in the upper right lobe?
what is the second most common site of primary lung cancer?
upper left lobe
asthma patients recieve what kind of drug that dialates the airways?
what kind of nerve fibers make up the cough reflex?
what are 2 names for the sympathetic fibers that innervate the heart, lungs, and esophagus?
thoracic splanchnic nerves or cardioplumonary nerves
what is the pulmonary ligament?
a communication between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura
what is the only known correlation of the pulmonary ligament?
it gives more room for pulmonary vein dialation when people have heart disease
what percentage of people have a cervical (extra) rib?
what is the name for the illness when the varicella virus (chickenpox) lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia and then all of a sudden disseminates itself out to the intercostal nerve, then to the cutaneous nerves, causing pustules to form and causing a lot of pain?
herpes zoster (shingles)
which pleura is insensitive to pain? why?
visceral, it has autonomic innervation
what nerves supply the parietal pleura? which ones supply the skin of the anterior abdominal wall? what does this mean?
12 intercostal nerves, lower 6 intercostal nerves, pleurisy (inflammation of the pleura) pain may be referred to the anterior abdominal wall
what is the optimal point of injection for a thoracocentesis?
the angle of the rib
what are the 2 layers of the pericardium?
fibrous and serous (serous parietal and serous visceral which is the epicardium)
what is the clinical significance of the transverse pericardial sinus?
surgeons use it to put a ligature around the pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta in order to divert blood flow to allow for a coronary bypass
what is the fibrous pericardium fused to? what does this mean for the heart?
the central tendon of the diaphragm; the heart changes shaped with each breath
what is the name for the condition where the serous pericardium becomes inflamed?
what is the name for the compression of the heart?
cardiac tamponade
what 3 veins empty into the superior vena cava?
right/left brachiocephalic and azygous
what 3 veins empty into the right atrium?
IVC, SVC, coronary sinus
what are 2 names for the band of tissue only found in the right ventricle that extends from the lower part of the interventricular septum to the base of the anterior papillary muscle? what's special about it?
septomarginal trabecula or moderator band; part of the conducting system lies in it
what is the name of the muscular ridges that are present throughout the myocardium?
trabeculae carnaea
what is the name for when the valves of the heart fuse and produce a narrow opening? how do you detect it?
stenosis; heart murmer will be present
what is the most frequently diseased heart valve?
what are the first arteries to branch off of the aorta?
right and left coronary
what is the most frequent site of occlusion of the coronary arteries?
the proximal point of the LAD
what vein is commenly used for coronary bypass surgery? why is it a good candidate?
great saphenous vein; easily accessible and has much elastic tissue in it's walls
what arteries supply the thymus gland?
anterior mediastinal branches of the internal thoracic artery
what veins drain the thymus gland?
inferior thyroid gland
what 2 veins join to form the brachiocephalic vein?
subclavian and IJV
what are the 3 braches of the arch of the aorta?
brachiocephalic (divides into right subclavian and right common carotid), left common carotid, and left subclavian
what artery runs with the phrenic nerve? what is this a branch of?
pericardiophrenic artery, which is a branch of the internal thoracic artery
what nerve travels under the ligamentum arteriosum? what is this a branch of?
the left laryngeal recurrant which is a branch of the vagus
what is the ligamentum arteriosum a remnant of? what did this connect in the fetus?
the ductus arteriosus; connected the left pulmonary vein directly to the aorta
if a patient presents with a sudden acute horseness what should they be evaluated for? why?
metastatic cancer, because bronchial or metastatic lung cancer can invade lymph nodes around the trachea, can even invade the recurrent laryngeal nerve that is associated closely with the left main bronchus, causing a paralysis of the left part of the larynx
what does the recurrent laryngeal nerve do besides innervating the larynx?
it gives motor innervation to the esophagus for voluntary movements of the esophagus
what are some places that the esophagus can become constricted? what is the most common place?
by the pharynx, the arch of the aorta, the left main bronchus or trachea; the most common place is around the diaphragm
what branch of the thoracic aorta helps the musculophrenic artery supply the diaphragm posteriorly?
superior phrenic branch
what structure is located below the diaphragm and receives lymphatic drainage from the abdominal viscera?
cisterna chyli
what is the anterior vagal trunk principally made up of? what about the posterior vagal trunk?
left vagus nerve, right vagus nerve
what spinal cord segments do the following nerves arise from:
greater splanchnic
lesser splanchnic
least splanchnic?
greater: T5-T9
lesser: T10-T11
least: T12
what ganglion receives the greater and lesser splanchnic nerves? what receives the least splanchnic nerve?
celiac; aorticorenal
what veins drain the yolk sac? what veins return venous blood from the anterior and posterior parts of the embryo?
vitelline, anterior and posterior cardinal veins
what is the first organ system to become functional? when does it become functional? why does it have to be the first?
CVS, 4th week (21st day), because the embryo is growing so fast that diffusion from the placenta to the embryo is not sufficient for it's oxygen/nutrient needs
what day does the heart first appear? start to beat?
18, 21
what tissue gives rise to the heart?
splanchnic mesoderm
what is the name of the longitudinal cords that arise from the splanchnic mesoderm?
angioblastic cords
what is the earliest appearance of the heart?
angioblastic cords
when the angioblastic cords begin to hollow out, what are they called?
endocardial heart tubes
how do the 2 endocardial heart tubes fuse together?
in a cranial-to-caudal sequence
name the 5 primitive chambers of the heart from caudal to cranial
sinus venosus, primitive atrium, primitive ventricle, bulbus cordis, and truncus arteriosus
what 2 primitive chambers of the heart grow faster than the others, causing bending?
the bulbus cordis and primitive ventricle
what does the bulbos cordis later form?
the aorta and pulmonary trunk
what structures grow towards each other and fuse, dividing the atrioventricular canal into right and left atrioventricular canals?
the ventral and dorsal endocardial cushions
what is the name for the perforations of the septum primum that occur inside the cranial end?
osteum (foramen) primum
what structure basically forms the interatrial septum?
septum secundum
which horn of the sinus venosus begins to recieve more blood and thus enlarge? what does this horn become? what does the other horn become?
right, sinus venarum (smooth part of the right atrial wall), coronary sinus
the rought part of the wall of the right atrium developed from what part of the primitive heart?
the primitive atrium
what does the right sinuatrial valve of the sinus venosus become? the left?
right - crista terminalis and valve of the IVC and coronary sinus
left - incorporated into the interatrial septum
what does the smooth part of the left atrial wall originate from? the rough part?
smooth - pulmonary vein tissue
rough - primitive atrium
what begins as an upgrowth of tissue near the apex of the heart (wall of ventricle)?
the muscular part of the interventricular septum
what are the 3 tissues that grow in to fuse the rest of the interventricular foramen shut?
left and right bulbar ridges and the upgrowth of the endocardial cushion material
what tissue forms the membranous part of the interventricular septum?
the upgrowth of the endocardial cushion material
when does the partitioning of the bulbus cordis and truncus arteriosus take place?
5th and 6th week of development
what does the bulbus cordis contribute to the right ventricle? left ventricle?
conus arteriosus, aortic vestibule
what structures are further modified to form papillary muscles and chordae tendonae?
trabeculae carneae
what percent of all birth defects are cardiac in nature? what percent of these have environmental causes? what percent are genetic? what percent are both?
25%, 2%, 8%, 90%
what is the most common ventricular septal defect?
when the membranous part of the interventricular septum doesn't form properly
when is the fertilized egg consider an "embryo"? "fetus"?
embryo - 0-8 weeks
fetus - 9 weeks to birth
what is the name of the shunt that allows the blood to bypass the liver?
ductus venosus
what does the ductus arteriosus connect?
the pulmonary arteries to the aorta
what does the umbilical vein become after birth? umbilical arteries (distal to the bladder)? ductus venosus? ductus arteriosus?
ligamentum teres (round ligament of the liver), medial umbilical ligaments, ligamentum venosum, ligamentum arteriosum
what is the second most common operation on an infant? first?
herniorrhaphy, circumcision
what is the name of the point that is 1/3 of the way from the ASIS to the umbilicus?
McBurney's point
what lies deep to the halfway point between the ASIS and umbilicus?
vermiform appendix
what is the name and clinical significance of the bloodless or "white line"?
linea alba, it is the most frequent surgical incision into the abdomen
what is it called when fluid builds up in the peritoneum?
what are the 9 layers of the abdominal wall from outermost to innermost?
skin, campers/fatty layer of fascia, scarpas/membranous layer of fascia, external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, transversus abdominus, transversalis fascia, extra peritoneal fatty tissue (aka preperitoneal fat), peritoneum
what is the name of the vertically condensed portion of scarpa's fascia? what does it do?
fundiform ligament, suspends the penis
what is the name of the inferior part of the external abdominal oblique that is turned under?
the inguinal ligament
what is the name of the continuation of the internal abdominal oblique that covers the spermatic cord?
cremaster muscle
what is the name of the inferior border of the posterior layer of the retus sheath? why is it significant?
arcuate line, is significant b/c there is less resistance to hernias in this area due to a lack of a posterior rectal sheath
what is under the median umbilical ligament? why is this clinically significant?
the remnants of the urachus, if it is patent then urine can leak out through the umbilicus
what is underneath the medial fold? what did it used to be?
medial ligament, umbilical arteries
what condition causes the veins of the abdominal wall to become enlarged b/c the IVC is blocked?
cirrhosis of the liver
where does the tissue above the umbilicus drain lymphatically? below the umbilicus?
above - axillary nodes
below - superficial inguinal lymph nodes that are just inferior to the inguinal ligament
what nerves supply the abdominal wall?
lower 6 thoracic ventral rami
L1 ventral rami divides into what 2 nerves?
iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal
what are the only 2 nerves that lie between the external abdominal oblique and the internal abdominal oblique?
iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal
if L1 ventral rami are disturbed, what is often one of the results and why?
loss of sensation in the muscles in the inguinal region that provide protection to that region - can result in a direct inguinal hernia
what is the name of the pinched off portion of the peritoneal cavity?
the vaginal tunic
what percent of full term male babies have crpytorchidism (undescended testes)? what percent of premature male babies do?
3%, 30%
when does the process vaginalis begin it's descent?
during the 8th week
what does the external abdominal oblique become in the scrotum? internal abdominal oblique? transversalis fascia?
external spermatic fascia, cremasteric muscle and fascia, internal spermatic fascia
at what week is the scrotum already formed? what week do the testicles begin to come down? what week do they completely drop?
8, 11, 32
what fibromuscular cord attaches to the testes and overies and helps them to descend?
what is the name of the "white coat" that sends connective tissue partitions down into the testis to divide it into lobules?
tunica albuginea
what part of the testis is where the spermatozoa are encountered?
mediastinal testis or rete testis
how long is the vas deferens?
21 feet
what resides in the spermatic cord?
vas deferens, artery of the vas deferens, testicular artery, pempiniform plexus of veins that gives rise to the testicular vein, genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve
what does the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve supply?
the cremaster muscle
where does the lymph from the scrotum go? what about the lymph from the testicle?
superficial inguinal lymph nodes, paraaortic or lumbar lymph nodes
what spinal nerves supply the skin of the scrotum? what about the testicles?
S2, 3, 4; T11
what would result from the intercrural fibers being cut?
the superficial ring would be enlarged resulting in a higher incidence of herniation
80% of people have what muscle in the inferior abdominal sheath?
where are the inferior epigastric vessels in relation to the deep ring?
they are medial to the deep ring
what nerve passes through the superficial inguinal ring?
ilioinguinal nerve
what does the iliohypogastric nerve supply? ilioinguinal nerve?
suprapubic skin, anterior scrotum/labia
what is the name of the place where the internal abdominal oblique and the transversus abdominus come together to form part of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal?
conjoint tendon
what is the name of the portion of the inguinal ligament that attaches to the pentineal line?
lacunar ligament
what are the borders of hasselbach's (inguinal) triangle?
lateral - inferior epigastric vessels
inferior - inguinal ligament
medial - lateral part of the rectus abdominus
what is it called if a hernia can be pushed back where it normally belongs? what is it called if it can't be pushed back but the blood vessels aren't cut off? what is it called if it can't be pushed back and the blood vessels are cut off?
the hernia in these situations is:
why do females never have direct inguinal hernias?
the falx inguinalis reinforces the medial aspect of the posterior wall of the canal
what muscle is sometimes used to repair a herniation?
what connects the lesser sac (omental bursa) to the greater sac?
the epiploic/omental foramen (of winslow)
what does the lesser sac sometimes fuse to form?
gastrocolic ligament
what attaches the duodenum to the liver? what 3 structures does it contain? what does it do?
the hepatoduodenal ligament; common bile duct, hepatic artery proper, and hepatic portal vein; helps form the epiploic foramen
what is GERD? why does it happen? what can result from it? how is it treated?
gastro-esophageal reflux disease, the stomach contents reflux past the esophageal sphincter, patient can develop Barrett esophagus (cancer of the esophagus - chronic peptic ulceration of the lower esophagus), treated with H2 blockers (inhibits secretion of excess acid)
what absorbs B12 in the stomach? what is it called when you can't absorb B12? what does this cause?
parietal cells, atrophic gastritis, causes degeneration of part of the spinal cord and dementia
what structure joins the stomach and the diaphragm?
phrenoesophageal ligament
what test can you do in order to test the functioning of the pyloric sphincter?
use barium as a tracer
where is the gallbladder located in relation to the ribs?
9th intercostal space
what are the names for the 2 pancreatic ducts?
principle (Wirsung) and accessory (Santorini)
the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct join to enter the duodenum where? what about the accessory pancreatic duct?
greater papillae of the duodenum (hepatopancreatic duct), minor duodenal papillae
where does pancreatic cancer occur most often?
in the head of the pancreas
how does the liver attach to the diaphragm? what about the anterior abdominal wall?
by the right and left triangular ligaments of the coronary ligament; the falciform ligament
what does the liver produce from proteins that is vitally important to the maintenance of oncotic pressure?
serum albumin
what is the ligamentum teres (round ligament) a remnant of? what about the ligamentum venosum?
the umbilical vein; the ductus venosus
what is the largest organ in the body? how much of the total body weight can it account for?
liver, 2.5%
what is another name for the major duodenum papilla?
what 2 ligaments suspend the spleen?
gastrosplenic ligament (part of the greater omentum) and the splenorenal ligament
what is the name for the permanent folds of the mucosa of the duodenum?
plicae circulares
what important structures is the horizontal part of the duodenum related to?
it passes between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta
what suspends the fourth (ascending) portion of the duodenum?
the ligamnt of Treitz (the right crus of the diaphragm)
what is the percent of dry weight of the fecal matter upon leaving the rectum?
how long is the small intestine?
what are 2 differences between the jejunum and the ileum?
jejunum - less fat in mesentary, vasa recta are long and straight
ileum - more fat in mesentary, vasa recta are shorter with more complex arcades
what is the largest and most mobile portion of the colon?
transverse colon
what is the only part of the digestive tract that drains directly into the IVC?
liver by way of the hepatic veins
what are the first branches of the abdominal aorta?
right and left inferior phrenic arteries
what is considered midgut? hindgut?
mid - small intestine, ascending/transverse colon
hind - descending/sigmoid colon, and rectum
what branches off of the celiac trunk?
left gastric artery, splenic artery, and common hepatic artery
what arteries does the splenic artery give off?
short gastric branches and left gastroomental (gastroepiploic)
what does the common hepatic artery divide into?
the hepatic artery proper and gastroduodenal artery
what does the gastroduodenal artery branch off into?
supraduodenal, and anterior and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries
what does the hepatic artery proper branch into?
left/right (sometimes intermediate) hepatic arteries, the cystic artery comes off the right hepatic artery, and the right gastric artery
what are the pancreatic arteries of the splenic artery?
dorsal pancreatic and greater pancreatic that anastomose to form the inferior pancreatic artery
what does the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery divide into?
anterior and posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries
where do the right and left gastric veins empty into? what about the right and left gastroepiploic (gastroomental) veins?
hepatic portal vein, superior mesenteric vein
what 3 veins join together to form the hepatic portal vein?
splenic, inferior and superior mesenteric veins
where does the appendicular artery arise from?
the superior mesenteric artery inferiorly
the superior mesenteric artery gives rise to what 3 branches that supplies the ascending and transverse colon? 2 of these anastomose to form what vein?
ileocolic, right colic, and middle colic; the middle and right anastomose to form the marginal artery
the inferior mesenteric artery gives off what branches to supply the descending and sigmoid colon, along with the rectum?
ascending/superior and descending/inferior branches of the left colic, sigmoidal branches, and the superior rectal artery
where does the descending abdominal aorta bifurcate? what does it bifurcate into?
L4, right and left common iliacs (those divide into the external and internal iliacs)
where does the IVC bifurcate?
what muscle forms the lateral 1/2 of the floor of the femoral triangle?
the iliopsoas
what anterior abdominal wall muscle is considered to be atavistic? which one is considered to be the corresponding muscle to the infraspinatus in the lower extremity?
pyramidalis, iliacus
what does the left crus of the diaphragm get pierced by? what about the right crus?
hemiazygos, azygos
what is another name for a herniation through the sternocostal foramen? what about the vertebrocostal trigone?
Morgagni, Bochdalek
what vertebral level does the IVC pierce the diaphragm? esophagus? aorta?
T8, T10, T12
how does the right phrenic nerve pierce the diaphragm? left?
right - travels with the IVC through the hiatus
left - directly pierces the diaphragm
what causes Dunbar's syndrome?
compression of the aorta by the diaphragm, reducing the blood flow, especially to the celiac trunk
what vein connects the common iliac vein to the lumbar veins and additionally has connections to the left renal vein? what does this vein ultimately form?
the ascending lumbar vein; this vein will communicate perpendicularly with the subcostal vein to form the azygos (right) and hemiazygos (left)
where is the cisterna chyli located?
just deep to the right crus of the diaphragm
what is it called when the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve becomes entraped?
neuralgia parasthetica
what nerve pierces the psoas major? what does it branch into?
genitofemoral nerve; branches into the genital branch (enters the deep ring of the ilioinguinal canal, supplies the cremaster muscle and the skin of the scrotum or skin of the labia) and the femoral branch (supplies the skin over the femoral triangle)
the SMA is anterior to what 2 structures?
left renal vein and 3rd/horizontal part of the duodenum
what is the avascular line of the kidney called?
Brodel's White line
how long is the ureter?
25 cm
what is the name of the embryonic membrane that separates what will become the oral cavity from what will become the pharynx?
oropharyngeal membrane
what is the name of the primitive oral cavity in the embryo? what about the primitive anal canal?
stomodeum, proctodeum
what is the name of the double-layered membrane that separates the proctodeum and the hind gut in the embryo?
the cloacal membrane
what is the entire digestive tract lined with? what about the oral cavity and the distal 1/3 of the anal canal?
endoderm, ectoderm
what artery supplies the foregut? midgut? hindgut?
celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery
what are 2 structures of the abdominal cavity that are 4 layers of peritoneum thick?
greater omentum and transverse mesocolon
the ventral bud of the pancreas forms what part of the pancreas? what about the dorsal bud?
ventral - ventral part of the head of the pancreas and the uncinate process
dorsal - dorsal part of head, neck, body, and tail
what ducts fuse to form the main pancreatic duct? what about the accessory pancreatic duct?
main - ventral pancreatic duct and the distal part of the dorsal pancreatic duct
accessory - proximal part of the dorsal pancreatic duct
when does insulin start to be secreted?
5th month of fetal development
what is an omphalocele?
when intestinal loops remain the the umbilical cord surrounded by a sac of amnion
what is Meckel's diverticulum?
when part of the vitalline duct which connect midgut to yolk sac does not completely disappear