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239 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The scapula ranges between what vertebrae?
T2-T7
What is Tuffier's line? What does it cross?
An invisible line that connects the topes of the iliac crests. It crosses the L4-L5 junction.
What vertebrae does the spinal cord end at?
L1 or L2
What causes scoliosis?
Being born with an extra part of a vertebrae
What is exaggeration of the lumbar curvature called?
Lordosis
What is exaggeration of the thoracic curvature called?
Kyphosis
What is spina bifida?
A neural tube defect marked by congenital cleft of the spinal column usually with hernial protrusion of the meninges and sometimes the spinal cord
What is the name of the joint between an upper and lower articulating vertebrae?
Zygapophysial joint
What is the name of the lip of the lateral body of a cervical vertebrae that forms a lateral joint?
Uncinate process
What artery is the first branch of the subclavian artery?
Vertebral
How much of the brain's blood supply do the right and left vertebral arteries supply?
About a third
What is between the superior articular and inferior articular process?
The pars interarticularis
What is spondyloisthesis?
The forward displacement of a lumbar vertebra on the one below it and especially of the 5th lumbar vertabra on the sacrum, producing pain by compression of nerve roots
What is the name of the canal that is created by S4 and S5 not fusing in the midline?
Sacral hiatus
Why is the intervertebral foramen an artificial foramen?
Because a true foramen is a hole through one bone, while the intervertebral hole is formed by 2 vertebra
What is ALL and where is it located?
Anterior longitudinal ligament; runs from the sacrum to the base of the skull. It prevents hyperextension of the vertebral column
What is PLL and where is it located?
Posterior longitudinal ligament; runs within the vertebral canal along the posterior aspect of the vertebral bodies, attaches to the base of the skull (this articulation is known as the tectorial membrane)
What does the PLL do?
Inhibits hyperflexion of the spine and disc herniation
What ligament is located on the underside of the lamina?
Ligamentum flavum
What does the ligamentum flavum do and become?
It helps restore hyperextended and hyperflexed spinal columns to the neutral position. It becomes the posterior atlanta-occipital membrane
What membrane does the vertebral artery pass through?
The posterior atlanto-occipital membrane
What is the name of the synovial, plane joints that occur between the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebrae?
Zygapophysial joints
What innervates the zygapopphysial joints?
Articular branches that arise from the medial branches of the posterior rami of spinal nerves
Where does the nuchal ligament attach?
The external occipital protuberance and posterior border of the foramen magnum to the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae
How much of our height do the intervertebral discs account for?
one fourth
what are the 2 portions of the intervertebral discs?
the outer annulus fibrosis (cartilaginous) and the nucleus pulposus
what is the name of the elaborate venous system that drains the spinal cord? what's special about it?
Batson's plexus, it's valve-less
what's the arterial blood supply to the posterior vertebral column?
aorta and vertebral artery
what muscle is known as the swimmer's muscle and what are it's functins?
latissimus dorsi, adduction, internal rotation, and extension
what does the serratus posterior inferior attach to and function in?
the ribs and breathing
what is the trianlge of petit bordered by?
latissimus dorsi, the iliac crest, and the external abdominal oblique muscles
what is the triangle of auscultation bordered by?
the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and scapula or rhomboid muscles
what 3 muscles border the suboccipital triangle?
superior posterior oblique, inferior posterior oblique, and rectus capitus major
what are the functions of the superior and inferior oblique muscles?
lateral rotation of the atlas on the axis
what are the functions of the major and minor rectus capitus muscles?
extension posteriorly of the neck and head
what is the nerve that emerges through the suboccipital triangle?
the suboccipital nerve
the suboccipital nerve is made up of?
the dorsal ramus of C1, which only has a motor component, not a sensory component (therefore it doesn't have a dorsal root ganglion)
what nerve emerges below the inferior oblique and passes superiorly through the suboccipital triangle onto the base of the skull?
the greater occipital nerve
what innervates the muscles of the suboccipital triangle?
the lesser occipital nerve from C3 and C2
what are the divisions of the iliocostalis?
lumborum, thoracis, and cervicis
what are the divisions of the longissimus?
thoracis, cervicis, and capitis
what are the divisions of the spinalis?
thoracis, cervicis, and capitis
what innervates the erector spinae muscles?
the dorsal rami of spinal nerves
what is the arterial supply for the erector spinae muscles?
the posterior intercostal artery, which is a branch of the intercostals which are segmental arteries coming off the descending aorta
what is the name of the deepest muscles of the back, and where do they generally run to/from?
the transversospinalis - they run from the transverse processes to the spine
what are the muscles of the transversospinalis group?
the semispinalis, the rotatores, and the multifidous
what are the divisions of the semispinalis?
capitis, cervicis, and thoracis
where does the splenius capitus insert?
the occipital bone inferior to the superious nuchal line
where do the rotatores attach?
from the transverse processes to the spines
where do the multifidi attach?
between 2 individual vertebrae
where does the spinal cord terminate?
at the disk between L1 and L2
at birth, where does the spinal cord end?
around L3
what spinal cord segments correlate with the cervical enlargement?
C4-T1
what spinal cord segments correlate with the lumbral-sacral enlargement?
L2-S3
what kind of neural fibers does the ventral horn of the spinal cord have?
motor
what kind of neural fibers does the dorsal horn of the spinal cord have?
sensory
what spinal cord segments have the additional lateral horn?
T1-L2
what kind of cell bodies does the lateral horn have? what do they supply?
autonomic motor neurons; the involuntary structures
what does the spinal nerve go through?
the intervertebral foramen
what spinal nerves have ventral rami that are connected to the sympathetic ganglion by a white and grey communicantes?
T1-L2
do the dorsal root ganglion have a synapse in them? what about the autonomic ganglion?
no; yes
what innervates the limbs?
ventral rami of spinal nerves that combine to form plexuses
do spinal nerves have general or specific components? which ones?
they have all 4 of the general components
the brachial plexus is formed by the ventral rami of what spinal nerves?
C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1
what is the vascular supply of the spinal cord?
one anterior spinal artery and 2 posterior spinal arteries
what is the general name of the segmental arteries that anastamose with the spinal arteries to provide additional blood?
segmental medullary arteries
where do the segmental medullary arteries anastamose with the spinal arteries?
in the intervertebral foramina
what is the name of the most important segmental meduallry artery and why is it so important?
the Great Anterior Medullary Segmental artery, or the Artery of Adamkiewicz; it supplies the lumbral-sacral enlargement of the spinal cord
what is the name of the bilateral toothed processes that attach to the inner surface of the dura mater?
denticulate ligament
what does the denticulate ligament separate?
the dorsal rootlets from the ventral rootlets
what vertebral level does the sac of dura mater and arachnoid mater end?
S2
what are the 2 names of the plexus of veins that drains the spinal cord?
Batson's plexus or the internal vertebral venous plexus
where should the lumbar puncture be performed?
between L3-L4 or L4-L5
what's another name for Tuffier's line?
the supracristal plane
the supraspinous fossa and the infraspinous fossa are connected by what?
the spinoglenoid notch
coracoid process means what?
beak-like
what 3 structures lie just a few centimeters inferior to the coracoid process?
axillary artery, axillary vein, and brachial plexus
what are the 3 borders of the scapula?
superior, medial (vertebral), and lateral (axillary)
what are the 3 angles of the scapula?
superior, inferior, and lateral
what is the suprascapular notch brided by?
the suprascapular ligament
what lies superior to the suprascapular ligament?
the suprascapular artery
what lies inferior to the suprascapular ligament?
the suprascapular nerve
what artery circumscribes the scapula by running on the lateral surface in the groove?
the circumplex scapular artery
what is another name for adduction?
retraction
what is another name for abduction?
protraction
what 2 muscles are very important in the lateral rotation of the scapula?
the serratus anterior and the trapezius
what is the most frequently fractured part of the humerous?
the surgical neck
what tendon lies in the bicepital/intertubecular groove of the humerous?
the long head of the biceps tendon
what are the 4 muscles that make up the rotator cuff?
S- supraspinatus
I- infraspinatus
T- teres minor
S- subscapularis
what is the only rotator cuff muscle that doesn't attached to the greater tubercle of the humerous?
the subscapularis
what is the "boxer's" muscle?
serratus anterior
what muscle has the same function as the latissimus dorsi (ie, extension, adduction, and medial rotation)?
teres major
what are the 3 heads of the triceps?
lateral, long, and deep
what are the borders of the quadrangle space?
teres major, teres minor, long head of the triceps, and surgical neck of the humerous
what is located in the quadrangle space?
axillary nerve and the posterior circumflex humeral artery
what are the borders of the triangular space?
teres major, teres minor, and the long head of the triceps
what is located in the triangular space?
a subcutaneous branch of the circumflex scapular artery
what is formed by the long and lateral heads of the triceps?
the triangular interval
what is the most frequently fractured bone in the body and where is it fractured?
the clavicle, at the junction of the medial 2/3rds and the lateral 1/3rd
what vein runs in the deltopectoral groove?
the cephalic
what artery runs in the deltopectoral groove?
the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial artery
what is located in the deltopectoral triangle?
the cephalic vein, the thoracoacromial artery, and the lateral pectoral nerve
what is the most frequently torn rotator cuff muscle?
the supraspinatus
what is the largest and 2nd largest synovial joints in the body?
1- the knee joint
2- the glenohumeral joint
what is the name of the lip that deepens that glenoid cavity?
the glenoid labrum
what is the name for a collection of cell bodies within the CNS?
nuclei
what is the name for a collection of cell bodies within the PNS?
ganglion
are there any synapses in the dorsal root gangliion?
no
what type of neural cell lies in the dorsal root ganglion?
pseudounipolar
where are the cell bodies of sympathetic nerve cells located?
the lateral horn (T1-L2)
how many neurons are involved in the parasympatheitc nervous system before the target organ is reached?
2
what nerves do the parasympathetic fibers orginate from?
crainial nerves 3, 7, 9, 10 and sacral nerves 2, 3, and 4
what is the distinguishing feature between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous sytem?
PNS only goes to the viscera, SNS goes to the viscera and to the periphery (body walls and limbs)
where do the sympathetic fibers originate?
lateral horn of T1-L2
how many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
31
what is another name for splanchnic?
visceral
where is a common place for the introduction of a central venous line?
in or near the posterior triangle
what is a common vein that is used to introduce a central line?
subclavian
what are the borders of the posterior triangle?
SCM anteriorly, trapezius posteriorly, middle 1/3 of the clavicle inferiorly
what divides the posterior triangle into 2 parts?
the omohyoid muscle
what is the name of the superior division of the posterior triangle?
the occipital triangle
what is/are the name(s) of the inferior division of the posterior triangle?
omoclavicular trianlge, supraclavicular triangle, or the subclavian triangle
what are the 2 heads of the SCM?
sternal and clavicular
what structure passes directly over the posterior triangle dividing the triangle into 2 zones?
the spinal accessory nerve (CNXI)
what can be found in the 2 zones (superior and inferior) made by the spinal accessory nerve of the posterior triangle?
superior: occipital artery
inferior: brachail plexus, subclavian artery, and subclavian vein
what nerve passes superficially to the levator scapulae?
CN-XI
what muscles form the floor of the posterior triangle?
posterior, middle, and anterior scalene muscles; levator scapulae; and splenius capitus
what is located at the junction of the superior 1/3 and inferior 2/3 of the posterior border of the SCM?
the nerve point
what is the name of the condition in which a person has an uncontrolled spasm of the SCM?
torticollis
how do you treat torticollis?
cut the spinal accessory nerve
what are the venous contents of the posterior triangle?
EJV and subclavian
what are the arterial contents of the posterior triangle?
subclavian, transverse cervical, suprascapular, and occipital
what are the nervous contents of the posterior triangle?
CN-XI, great auricular, transverse cervical, and supraclavicular
what is located in the superficial fascia of the posterior triangle?
platysma, EJV, and cutaneous nerves
what envelops the trapezius, comes attached to the ligamentum nuchae posteriorly, and then passes and becomes the roof of the posterior triangle?
the investing fascia
what forms the fascial floor of the posterior triangle?
the prevertebral fascia
what are the relationships between the EJV, SCM, and IJV?
EJV is external to the SCM which is external to the IJV
where does the EJV terminate?
subclavian vein
what nerve is the most frequently injured nerve by doctors when trying to biopsy a lymph node?
the spinal accessory nerve
what 2 veins come together to form the brachiocephalic vein?
IJV and subclavian
the IJV and subclavian veins come together to form what vein?
the brachiocephalic vein
the right and left brachiocephalic veins come together to form what vein? what's important about this vein?
the superior vena cava - it is the second largest vein in the body
what is the largest vein in the body?
inferior vena cava
what are the 3 branches off of the aortic arch (in sequence)?
brachiocephalic artery/trunk, left common carotid, left subclavian
what 2 arteries does the brachiocephalic artery give rise to and what do they supply?
the right subclavian (upper limb) and the right common carotid (head and neck)
what is the first branch off of the subclavian artery?
the vertebral arteries
what 3 arteries commenly arise from a common trunk called the thyrocervical trunk?
inferior thyroid artery, transverse cervical artery, and suprascapular artery
what muscle divides the subclavian artery into 3 parts?
the anterior scalene
what part of the subclavian artery does the thyrocervical trunk branch off of?
the proximal (first) part
at what landmark does the subclavian artery change its name to the axillary artery?
the outer surface of the first rib
at what landmark does the axillary artery change its name to the brachial artery?
the lateral/distal border of the teres major
what muscle is responsible for dividing the axillary artery into 3 parts?
the pectoralis minor
what is the cervical plexus formed by?
the ventral rami of C1-C4
what nerve arises from C3, C4, and C5?
phrenic
what 2 muscles does the phrenic nerve run accross anteriorly?
the anterior scalene and the SCM
what nerves pass into the posterior triangle via the nerve point?
spinal accessory nerve and cutaneous nerves
what are the 4 cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus?
greater auricular nerve, lesser occipital nerve, transverse cervical nerve, and supraclavicular nerve
what is the medial border of the axilla?
serratus anterior
what is the posterior border of the axilla?
subscapularis
what is the anterior border of the axilla?
pectoralis major/minor
what is the lateral border of the axilla?
intertubecular groove
what are the contents of the axilla?
subclavian artery, subclavian vein, brachial plexus, apex of the lung
where do the anterior, middle, and posterior scalene muscles attach?
anterior/middle: 1st rib
posterior: 2nd rib
what kind of muscle is the platysma muscle and what is it innervated by?
facial expression muscles, innervated by the facial nerve (CN-VII)
what is the breast?
a modified sweat gland
what are the lobes of the breast separated by?
dense connective tissue strands called Cooper's ligaments
where is the nipple located?
the 4th intercostal space
what is the dermatome of the nipple?
T4
what is the name of the breast extension that travels towards the axilla?
the tail of spence
what 2 skin areas on the body have fibers that directly connect to the hypothalamus?
the nipple and the skin of the perineum (labia minora, scrotum)
what branch of the subclavian artery runs lateral to the sternum and gives off branches that support the breast tissue?
internal thoracic
what branch of the axillary artery supplies the breast tissue?
lateral thoracic
what branch of the thoracoacromial artery supplies the breast?
pectoral
what is the apex of the axilla comprised of?
1st rib, clavicle, and the superior angle of the scapula (this place is called the cervicoaxillary canal)
what is the medial border of the axilla?
serratus anterior and intercostal muscles
what is the anterior border of the axilla?
pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, and clavipectoral fascia between these muscles
what is the inferior border of the axilla?
the skin of the axilla and the fascia of the region
what is the lateral border of the axilla?
intertubercular groove (aka bicipitus sulcus)
what is the posterior border of the axilla?
subscapularis, latissimus dorsi, and teres major
what 3 structures pierce the clavipectoral fascia on their way out of or into the axilla?
cephalic vein, thoracoacromial artery, and lateral pectoral nerve
what fascia envelopes the subclavius and pectoralis minor?
clavipectoral
what is the name of the primary interal rotator that inserts of the lesser tubercle of the humerus?
subscapularis
injury to what muscle results in wing scapula?
serratus anterior
what is the serratus anterior innervated by?
long thoracic nerve
what procedure has a relatively high risk of damaging the long thoracic nerve?
a radical breast mastectomy
what are the 3 branches of the axillary artery?
superior thoracic artery, thoracoacromial artery, and lateral thoracic artery
what artery runs parallel to the long thoracic nerve?
lateral thoracic artery
what 2 branches of the axillary artery form a ring around the surgical neck of the humerous?
posterior and anterior circumflex humeral arteries
what is it called if there is a lot of C4 contribution to the brachial plexus, but less or none of T1?
pre-fixed plexus
what is it called if there is a lot of T2 contribution to the brachial plexus, but less or none of C5?
post-fixed plexus
what are the names given to a compressed radial nerve?
crutch palsy and saturday night palsy
what is the name given to the brachial plexus injury caused by excess separation between the neck and shoulder? what is the result of the injury?
erb duchene palsy - "waiter's tip" positioning of the arm
what is the name given to a lower brachial plexus injury?
klumpke palsy
what 2 nerves supply the skin on the lateral aspect of the arm?
superior lateral cutaneous (branch of the axillary) and inferior lateral cutaneous (branch of the radial)
what 2 nerves supply the skin on the medial aspect of the arm?
medial cutaneous (branch of the medial cord of the brachial plexus) and intercostobrachial nerve (branch of T2)
what nerve supplies the skin on the posterior aspect of the arm?
posterior cutaneous (branch of the radial)
where does all of the lymph from the upper limb eventually drain?
the subclavian lymph trunk
what separtes the anterior compartment of the arm from the posterior compartment? where does it attach?
the medial and lateral intermuscular septa - they attach to the medial and lateral supraeqicondylar ridges of the humerous
what are 3 functions of the biceps?
flex the shoulder joint, flex the forearm at the elbow, and supinates the forearm and hand at the proximal radioulnar joint
what are the 3 major branches of the brachial artery?
deep artery of the arm (profunda brachii), superior and inferior ulnar collateral
what artery accompanies the radial nerve in the radial groove?
deep artery
what 2 arteries does the deep artery divide into?
radial collateral and middle collateral
what are the boundaries of the cubital fossa?
lateral - brachioradialis
medial - pronator teres
base - imainary line through the epicondyles
what are the contents of the cubital fossa?
tendon of the biceps, brachial artery (which is terminating into its radial and ulnar branches), median nerve, radial nerve
what offers some protection to the brachial artery and median nerve that lie in the cubital fossa?
the bicipital aponeurosis
what vein connects the bacilis and cephalic veins?
median cubital vein
what is student's elbow caused by?
inflammation of the subcutaneous olecranon bursa
what are the 2 lines of the arm that are important to the biomechanics of how to place a cast?
the weight line and the line of rotation
what are the carpal bones of the proximal row?
scaphoid, lunate, triquitrium, pisiform
what are the carpal bones of the distal row?
trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
what type of joint is the wrist joint?
condyloid type of synovial
what are the ligaments inside the wrist joint that reinforce the articulartion of carpal bones?
palmar radiocarpal, dorsal radiocarpal, ulnar and radial collateral ligaments
what are the most important ligaments of the wrist joint?
ulnar carpal collateral and radial carpal collateral
what is the treatment for ligament injuries?
NSAIDs, ice, rest
what is a colles fracture?
when the distal end of the radius is displaced posteriorly
what is a reverse colles fracture?
when the distal end of the radius is displaced anterior
what muscle splits and allows the flexor digitorum profundus to pass through it?
flexor digitorum superficialis
what 2 cords supply all superficial flexors except flexor carpi ulnaris and some branches of the flexor digitorum profundis?
lateral and medial
what is the condition caused by compromise of the radial nerve in the forearm?
wrist drop
what are the borders of the anatomical snuff box?
APL, EPB, and EPL
what passes through the anatomical snuff box?
radial artery
what is the definition of an extrinsic muscle of the hand?
those muscles with only one attachment in the hand
what is the definition of an intrinsic muscle of the hand?
those muscles with both attachments in the hand
how many different muscles contribute to the movements of the thumb?
at least 8
what surface anatomy indicates the beginning of the flexor retinaculum?
the distal wrist crease
what is the best example of a saddle joint in the body?
the joint between the trapezium and the first metacarpal
what lies in the carpal tunnel?
9 long flexor tendons and the median nerve
what ligament forms the roof over the ulnar artery and nerve?
palmar/volar carpal ligament
what is the most common site of injury to the median nerve?
the carpal tunnel
the ulnar nerve and artery travel through what canal? where does it lie?
Guyon's or ulnar canal. it lies between the pisiform and the hook of the hamate
what nerve branches off the median nerve proximal to the flexor retinaculum and passes superficial to the flexor retinaculum?
the palmar cutaneous nerve
what is tenosynovitis?
inflammation of the synovial sheaths
what is dupuytren's contraction?
the tickening (fibrosis) of the fibrous extensions of the palmar aponeurosis that extend out into the digits
what are the first 2 lumbricles innervated by? the last 2?
median nerve, ulnar nerve
what artery passes between the transverse and oblique heads of the adductor pollicis?
radial
which interosseous muscles adduct? which abduct?
palmar interossi adduct (PAD), dorsal interossi abduct (DAB)
what mainly contributes to the superficial palmar arch? deep palmar arch?
ulnar artery, radial artery
what is the main artery of the pollicis?
princeps pollicis
what begins in the anatomical snuffbox?
the cephalic vein