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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
anatomy
cutting up or dissection of the body
study of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts
physiology
function of body parts
surface anatomy
study of form (morphology) and markings on the surface of the body
Gross anatomy
(grossus-latin-big, thick)
structures observed with the unaiaded eye, cadaver, regional or systemic approach
# of body systems
11
microscopic anatomy
devoted to finer detail
microscope used as an aid
cytology and histology
different microscopes used
OM, TEM, SEM
cytology
study of cells
histology
study of tissues
OM
optical light microscope: phase contrast, ultraviolet, etc.
TEM
transmission electron microscope (see ultrastructure)
SEM
scanning electron microscope (see ultrastructure)
developmental anatomy
study of human body from conception to adult form
embryology
unicellular zygote to end of the 8th week in utero
fetology
9th week to parturition
endoscopy
a narrow felexible tube with light is inserted into hollow organs via external openings
endoscope
mouth to throat to esophagus to stomach (ulcers)
protoscope or sigmoidoscope
anal opening to anal canal to rectum to colon
hemorrhoids
flowing with blood
pathological anatomy
study of structural changes associated with disease
Radiographic anatomy
x-rays used to view internal structures for abnormalities
x-ray
flat image
CAT
computer assisted tomography, end result is a 3-D cross sectional picture
DSR
dynamic spatial reconstructor, constructs a moving 3-D life size image of an internal organ
DSA
digital subtraction angiography, x-ray image before and after IV iodine allows isolation of arteries
US
Ultrasound or sonography- a device emits a high frequency sound(radar) and records echo on a monitor
scintigraphy
nuclear medicine, unstable isotopes introduced into body, collected by different organs become concentrated
PET
positron emission tomography, radioisotopes are more precisely localized with the aid of computer imaging techniques
MRI/NMR
magnetic resonance imaging/nuclear magnetic resonance, determines if nuclei of a single element behave normally in response to magnetism. noninvasive no radiation
level of organization in body
subatomic particles -atoms -compounds/molecule -cells -tissues -organs -systems -organism
anatomical position
body upright, head, eyes, toes forward, upper limbs hangin, palms forward
body plane
flat surface that passes through the body
median or midsagittal plane
runs vertically, splits body into equal left and right sides
sagittal or parasagittal
divides body into left and right unequal protions, || to median plane
frontal or coronal plane
run vertically, divide body into anterior and posterior portions
horizontal or transverse plane
"cross section" divides body into superior and inferior
oblique plane
transverse section cut at an angle
superior, cephalic, cephalad, cranial
toward head
inferior, caudal, caudad
away from head
anterior ventral or venter
toward front
posterior dorsal dorsum
toward back
medial mesial
nearer midline
lateral
farther from midline
ipsilateral
same side of body
contralateral
opposite side of body
proximal
nearer point of origin
distal
farther form origin
internal and external
used to indicate respective surfaces of hollow organ or body as a whole
superficial
near the surface
deep
away from the surface
central
nearer to the center
peripheral
farther from the center
parietal
pertains to the walls of a cavity
visceral
pertains to the covering of an organ
intermediate
between two structures