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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three boundaries of the anterior triangle?
SCM, inferior border of mandible, anterior midline of neck
Which structures divide the Anterior Triangle into four smaller triangles?
Anterior and posterior bellies of digastic
Hyoid bone
Omohyoid m.
What are the names of the four triangles that compose the Anterior Triangle. How many of each?
Submental (1)
Submandibular (2)
Muscular (2)
Carotid (2)
What is the most superficial muscles of the anterior neck?
platysma m.
What surrounds platysma m.?
superficial cervical fascia
Origin of platysma m.
fascia covering the clavicle and superior parts of pec. major and deltoid
Insertion of platysma m.?
inferior border of the mandible, skin, and subcutaneous tissues of lower face
Innervation of platysma (specific)?
Facial nerve (CN VII)--cervical branch
Function of platysma m.?
Draw corners of mouth inferiorly and widens it. When teeth clenched, draws skin of neck superiorly
What kind of fascia invests infrahyoid muscles?
Pretracheal fascia
What kind of deep cervical fascia surrounds SCM and trapezius?
Investing fascia
What are the three types of deep cervical fascia?
investing fascia
pretracheal fascia
prevertebral fascia
Which fascial layers contribute to the carotid sheath?
All of the deep cervical fascia types:
investing fascia
pretracheal fascia
prevertebral fascia
The carotid sheath surrounds/protects which structures?
Common carotid a.
internal jugular v.
vagus n.
Which structure within the carotid sheath is medial?
common carotid a.
Which structure within the carotid sheath is lateral?
internal jugular v.
Which structure within the carotid sheath is posterior?
vagus n.
Deep cervical fascia support which general structures?
muscle, viscera, vessels, and lymph nodes
What are the boundaries of the Submental Triangle?
anterior belly of digastric
hyoid bone
anterior midline of neck
What comprises the floor of the Submental Triangle?
mylohyoid muscle
What are the contents of the Submental Triangle?
Submental lymph nodes
Mylohyoid m.
Mylohyoid n. (V3)
Veins that unite Anterior Jugular Veins
What are the boundaries of the Submandibular Triangle?
anterior belly of digastric
posterior belly of digastic
inferior border of mandible
What comprises the floor of the Submandibular Triangle?
mylohyoid m.
hyoglossus m.
middle pharyngeal constrictor m.
Name two "suprahyoid muscles"
digastric muscle
mylohyoid muscle
What is the origin of the anterior belly of the digastric m.?
digastric fossa of mandible
What is the origin of the posterior belly of the digastric m.?
mastoid notch of temporal bone
What is the insertion of the anterior belly of the digastric m.?
intermediate tendon of body and greater horn of hyoid bone
What is the insertion of the posterior belly of the digastric m.?
intermediate tendon of body and greater horn of hyoid bone
What is the function of anterior belly of the digastric m.?
depress mandible
raise hyoid and steady while talking or swallowing
What is the function of posterior belly of the digastric m.?
depress mandible
raise hyoid and steady while talking or swallowing
Innervation of anterior belly of digastric m.?
mylohyoid n. (V3)
Innervation of posterior belly of digastric m.?
facial n. (CN VII)
What is the origin of mylohyoid?
mylohyoid line of mandible
What is the insertion of mylohyoid?
raphe and body of hyoid
What is the innervation of mylohyoid?
mylohyoid nerve (V3)
What is the function of mylohyoid?
elevate hyoid, floor of mouth and tongue during speaking and swallowing
What is the origin of hyoglossus? (specific)
body and greater horn of hyoid bone
What is the insertion of hyoglossus?
lateral side and inferior aspect of tongue
What is the innervation of hyoglossus?
hypoglossal nerve (CN 12)
What is the function of hyoglossus?
retract and depress tongue
What is the origin of middle pharyngeal constrictor m.?
stylohyoid ligament and greater and lesser horns of hyoid
What is the insertion of middle pharyngeal constrictor m.?
median raphe of pharynx
What is the innervation of middle pharyngeal constrictor m.?
CN 11 via 10
What is the function of middle pharyngeal constrictor m.?
constrict wall of pharynx during swallowing
What are the contents of the Submandibular Triangle?
submandibular gland
submandibulr lymph nodes (subgroup of pericervical nodes)
facial a. and v.
hypoglossal n.
mylohyoid n. (V3)
As hypoglossal nerve enters facial area, what is its relationship to two muscles in the lower face?
It courses between mylohyoid and hyoglossus.
Chorda tympani is from which cranial nerve?
CN VII
Chorda tympani is composed of which nerve fibers?
VE para/pre
Describe the course of the para pre fibers which innervate the submandibular gland
Para/pre cell bodies in superior salvitory nucleus in brainstem--> fibers travel in chorda tympani--> lingual n.--> submandibular ganglion (synapse)
The submandibular gland produces about how much of saliva produced?
70%
Describe the course of the para/post fibers which innervate the submandibular gland
cell body in submandibular gangion--> innervate submandibular gland or return to the lingual nerve to innervate sublingual gland
Which other fibers course through the submandibular ganglion?
Symp/post and SA fibers (do not synapse here)
Saliva from submandibular gland and part of sublingual gland empty at which structure?
sublingual caruncle (on either side of frenulum)
Which of the four types of subtriangles of the Anterior Triangle do not have floors?
muscular and carotid triangles
What are the boundaries of the muscular triangle?
superior belly of omohyoid,
anterior border of SCM,
midline of neck
Contents of the Muscular Triangle?
Infrahyoid muscles
thyroid and parathyroid glands
recurrent laryngeal nerves
anterior jugular vein
larynx
trachea
What are the four infrahyoid muscles. Which are superficial or deep?
Sternohyoid (superficial)
Omohyoid (superficial)
Sternothyroid (deep)
Thyrohyoid (deep)
From where to anterior jugular veins arise?
near hyoid from confluence of superficial submandibular veins
Where are anterior jugular veins in relation to SCM
just medial
Where do anterior jugular veins end?
they meet each other to form the jugular venous arch just superior to manubrium
Where do anterior jugular veins usually empty?
subclavian veins
Infrahyoid muscles aka?
"strap" muscles
Which strap muscle covers the lateral surface of the thyroid gland?
the sternothyroid
What is the origin of omohyoid?
superior border of scapula near suprascapular notch
What is the insertion of omohyoid?
inferior border of hyoid
What is the innervation of omohyoid?
ansa cervicalis
What is the action of omohyoid?
depresses, retracts, and steadies hyoid
What is the origin of sternohyoid?
manubrium and medial end of clavicle
What is the insertion of sternohyoid?
body of hyoid
What is the innervation of sternohyoid?
ansa cervicalis
What is the function of sternohyoid?
depresses hyoid bone after is has been elevated during swallowing
What is the origin of thyrohyoid?
oblique line of thyroid cartilage
What is the insertion of thyrohyoid?
inferior border of body and greater horn of hyoid
What is the innervation of thyrohyoid?
C1 via hypoglossal n. (CN XII)
What is the function of thyrohyoid?
depresses hyoid bone and elevates larynx
Which is the only infrahyoid muscle which is not innervated by ansa cervicalis?
thyrohyoid m.
What is the origin of sternothyroid?
1st costal cartilage and posterior manubrium
What is the insertion of sternothyroid?
oblique line of thyroid cartilage
What is the innervation of sternothyroid?
ansa cervicalis
What is the action of sternothyroid?
depresses the hyoid bone and larynx
What is the purpose of Right Cardiac Catherization?
To measure pressure within the right chambers of the heart
In cardiac catherization which vessel does the catheter enter
RIGHT internal jugular vein
Describe path of catheter in cardicac catherization
in through right IJV, right brachiocephalic vein, SVC, right atrium
4 Infrahyoid muscles collectively perform which function?
anchor hyoid, sternum, clavicle, and scapula and depress hyoid and larynx during swallowing and speaking
also help suprahyoid ms. by providing a firm base for tongue by steading hyoid
50% of people have which thyroidal structure?
pyramidal lobe
Thyroid is responsible for....
how quickly body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones
produces T3, T4, and calcitonin
Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) produce which affects?
-increase the basal metabolic rate
-affect protein synthesis
-help regulate long bone growth (synergy with growth hormone)
-neuronal maturation
-increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness. -development and differentiation of all cells of the human body.
-regulate protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, affecting how human cells use energetic compounds.
-stimulate vitamin metabolism.
-heat generation
Calcitonin does what?
Regulates calcium and phosphate in blood

-Inhibits Ca2+ absorption by the intestines
-Inhibits osteoclast activity in bones
-Inhibits phosphate reabsorption by the kidney tubules
-Calcitonin inhibits tubular reabsorption of Ca2+, leading to increased rates of its loss in urine.
Parathyroid hormone does what?
In BONE: Indirectly stimulates osteoclasts. It enhances the release of calcium from the large reservoir contained in the bones.[7] Bone resorption is the normal destruction of bone by osteoclasts, which are indirectly stimulated by PTH. Stimulation is indirect since osteoclasts do not have a receptor for PTH; rather, PTH binds to osteoblasts, the cells responsible for creating bone. Binding stimulates osteoblasts to increase their expression of RANKL and inhibits their expression of Osteoprotegrin(OPG). OPG binds to RANKL and blocks it from interacting with RANK, a receptor for RANKL. The binding of RANKL to RANK (facilitated by the decreased amount of OPG) stimulates these osteoclast precursors to fuse, forming new osteoclasts which ultimately enhances bone resorption.increases blood calcium levels.

-In KIDNEYS, PTH enhances active reabsorption of calcium and magnesium from distal tubules and the thick ascending limb. As bone is degraded both calcium and phosphate are released. It also greatly increases the excretion of phosphate, with a net loss in plasma phosphate concentration. By increasing the calcium:phosphate ratio more calcium is therefore free in the circulation.

in INTESTINES: It enhances the absorption of calcium in the intestine by increasing the production of activated vitamin D
Which hormones oppose each other in calcium regulation?
Calcitonin and PTH/Vitamin D
Blood supply of thyroid gland
superior thyroid a. (external carotid)
inferior thyroid a. (thyrocervical trunk)
10% have thyroid ima artery (common carotid)
artery found in about 10% of people that poses a possible complication in tracheostomy
thryoid ima a. (off common carotid)
Venous drainage of thyroid gland
superior thyroid v. (IJV)
middle thyroid bein (IJV)
inferior thyroid vein (L or R Brrachiocephalic v)
origin of left recurrent laryngeal n.
wraps around aortic arch
origin of right recurrent laryngeal n.
wraps around right subclavian a.
relationship of recurrent laryngeal ns. to major surrounding structures
between trachea and esophagus
motor innervation to all larynx muscles except cricothryoid muscle?
recurrent laryngeal ns. (CN XI via CN X)
What innervates cricothyroid muscle?
external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (from vagus)
Boundaries of carotid triangle
omohyoid m.
SCM
posterior belly of diagastric
Contents of carotid triangle
-carotid sheath and its structures
-external carotid a. (& some branches)
-superior laryngeal n.
-CN XI--spinal accessory n.
-CN XII--hypoglassal n.
-ansa cervicalis
common carotid usually bifurcates at which vertebral level?
C4
nonterminal branches of external carotid a. (6)
superior thyroid
ascending pharyngeal
lingual
facial
occipital
posterior auricular
terminal branches of external carotid a.
maxillary a.
superficial temporal a.
mass of tissue that lies at the bifurcation of common carotid a. and what is its function?
carotid body---chemoreceptor for O2, CO2, and H+
innervation of carotid body
CN IX (carotid sinus nerve) and a little from CN X
baroreceptor in internal carotid a.
carotid sinus
function of carotid sinus
detect arterial blood pressure
innervation of carotid sinus
CN IX (carotid sinus nerve) and a little from CN X
superior laryngeal nerve arises from what ganglion?
inferior vagal ganglion
What are the two branches of the superior laryngeal nerve?
internal and external laryngeal ns.
Internal laryngeal nerve function
sensory and autonoic innervation to laryngeal mucous membrane superior to vocal folds
External laryngeal nerve function
supplies motor fibers to cricothyroid muscle
spinal accessory nerve innervates which muscles and is composed of which fibers?
SE, SA--trapezius and SCM
hypoglossal n has which fibers?
SE and SA
Which nerve innervates all of the tongue muscles except palatoglossus?
hypoglassal nerve
What innervates palatoglossus?
CN XI via CN X
Ansa cervicalis formed by ventral rami of which spinal roots?
C1-C3
Superior root of ansa cervicalis is from what?
C1
Inferior root of ansa cervicalis is comprised of which ventral rami?
C2-C3
Facial vein empties into internal jugular vein where?
opposite or just inferior to hyoid
Superior thyroid a. supplies...
-thyroid gland
-internal structures of larynx
-thyrohyoid m.
-inferior SCM
-cricothyroid m.
Ascending pharyngeal a. supplies...
-palate
-tonsils
-pharyngeal constrictors
-stylopharyngeus m.
-auditory tube
-meninges in posterior cranial fossa
lingual a. supplies...
tongue
soft palate
palatine tonsil
epiglottis
floor of mouth
sublingual gland
facial a. supplies...
face from mandible to eye to masseter
soft palate
palatine tonsil
submandibular gland
auditory tube
occipital a. supplies...
meninges of posterior cranial fossa
mastoid cells
SCM
deep muscles of back and post. scalp
maxillary a. supplies...
TMJ joint
external auditory meatus
tympanic membrane
lateral dura mater of skull
trigeminal ganglion
teeth and gingivae
nasal cavity
pharynx
infrtemporal fossa
mylohyoid
temporalis
superficial temporal a. supplies...
parotid gland and duct
lateral face
anterior external ear
parietal and temporal fossae
masseter
temporalis
posterior auricular a. supplies...
-parotid gland and nearby ms.
scalp behind ear
external, middle, inner ear
Which arteries supply the soft palate?
lingual and facial as.
Which arteries supply the parotid gland
posterior auricular a. and superficial temporal a.
Which artery supplies the TMJ?
maxillary a.