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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Muscular system
Produces movement, protects internal organs, produces body heat, maintains posture;
Three main kinds of muscle: cardiac, visceral, skeletal
Excitability
Irritability, the ability to respond to a stimulus such as a nerve impulse
Contractibility
Muscle fibers that are stimulated by nerves contract (become short) and thick, which causes movement
Extensibility
The ability to be stretched
Elasticity
Allows the muscle to return to its original shape after it has contracted or stretched
Cardiac muscle
Forms the walls of the heart and contracts to circulate blood; involuntary movement
Visceral (Smooth) muscle
Found in the internal organs of the body such as those of the digestive and respiratory systems, and blood vessels and eyes; contract to cause movement in these organs; involuntary
Skeletal muscle
Attached to bones and causes body movement; voluntary because a person has control over its action
Tendons
Strong, tough connective-tissue cords; Ex. gastrocenemius muscle on the calf of the leg which attaches to the heelbone by the Achilles tendon
Fascia
Tough, sheetlike membrane that covers and protects the tissue; Ex. deep muscles of the trunk and back which are surrounded by the lumbodorsal fascia
Origin
The end that does not move when a muscle attaches to a bone
Insertion
The end that moves when a muscle contracts
Adduction
Moving a body part toward the midline
Abduction
Moving a body part away from the midline
Flexion
Decreasing the angle between two bones, or bending a body part
Extension
Increasing the angle between two bones, or straightening a body part
Rotation
Turning a body part around its own axis; for example, turning the head from side to side
Circumduction
Moving in a circle at a joint, or moving one end of a body part in a circle while the other end remains stationary, such as swinging arm in circle
Muscle tone
The state of partial contraction; sometimes described as state of readiness to act
Contracture
Severe tightening of a flexor muscle resulting in bending of a joint; sometimes caused by lack of use
Fibromyalgia
Chronic, widespread pain in specific muscle sites; other symptoms: muscle stiffness, numbness or tingling in arms/legs, fatigue, sleep disturbances, headaches, and depression; cause is unknown; treatment directed toward pain relief
Muscular Dystrophy
Group of inherited diseases that lead to chronic, progressive muscle atrophy; usually appears in early childhood; most types result in total disability and early death; no cure but physical therapy can slow progress
Myasthenia gravis
Chronic condition where nerve impulses are not properly transmitted to the muscles; leads to progressive muscular weakness and paralysis; can be fatal if it affects the respiratory muscles; cause is unknown, no cure and treatment is supportive
Muscle spasms
Cramps, are sudden, painful involuntary muscle contractions; usually occur in legs or feet and may result from overexertion, low electrolyte levels, or poor circulation
Strain
Overstretching of or injury to a muscle and/or tendon; usually back, arms, and legs; prolonged or sudden muscle exertion is usually the cause; symptoms: muscle pain, swelling, limited movement