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160 Cards in this Set

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What do Lymphatic and Immune systems do
-Maintain fluid balance
-protect body from infection and diesase
Functions of Lymphatic system
-immunity
-lipid absorption
-fluid recovery
What is a lymph
-clear colorless fluid, similar to plasma but much less protein
What do lymphatic capillaries do?
-allow bacteria and cells entrance to lymphatic capillary
-creats valve-like flaps that open when interstitial fluid pressure is high, close when its low.
The three layers of the larger lymphatic vessel
-tunica interna(endothelium and valves)
-tunica media(Elastic fibers, smooth muscle)
-tunica externa(thin outer layer)
Route of lymph flow
-lymphatic capillaries
-collecting vessels
-lymphatic trunks
-collecting ducts
Function of Lymphatic trunks
-drain major portions of body
Two parts of the collecting ducts
-right lymphatic duct
-thoracic duct
Function of right lymphatic duct
-recieves lymph from R ar, R side of head and thorax,
-empties into R subclavian vein.
Function of thoracic duct
-larger/longer
-begins as prominent sac in abdomen (cisterna chyli)
-recieves lymph from below diaphram, L arm, L side of head, neck and thorax,
-empties into L subclavian vein.
Mechanisms of Lymph Flow
-lymph flows at low pressure and speed.
-moved along by rhythmic contractions of lymphatic vessels-flow aided by skeletal muscle pump
-Thoracic pump aides flow form abdominal to thoracic cavity.
-valves prevent backward flow
-rapidly flowing blood in subclavian veins, draws lymph into it
-exercise significantly increases lymphatic return.
Lymphatic Cells
-Natural Killer (NK) cells
-T lymphocytes
-B lymphocytes
-Antigen Presenting Cells
Natural Killer (NK) cells are responsible for
-immune surveillance
T lymphocytes mature in the...
Thymus
B Lymphocytes activation causes
-proliferation and differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies
Antigen Presenting Cells include
-macrophages (from monocytes)
-dendritic cells (in epidermis, mucous membranes and lymphatic organs)
-reticular cells (contribute to stroma of lymph organs)
Lymphatic Nodules
-dense oval masses of lymphocytes, congregate in response to pathogens.
Peyer Patches
more permanent congregation, clusters found at junction of small to large intestines
Two types of lymphatic organs
-primary lymphatic organs
-secondary lymphatic organs
Lymphatic Organs are found at
Well defined sites; have CT capsules
Antigen Presenting Cells include
-macrophages (from monocytes)
-dendritic cells (in epidermis, mucous membranes and lymphatic organs)
-reticular cells (contribute to stroma of lymph organs)
Lymphatic Nodules
-dense oval masses of lymphocytes, congregate in response to pathogens.
Peyer Patches
more permanent congregation, clusters found at junction of small to large intestines
Two types of lymphatic organs
-primary lymphatic organs
-secondary lymphatic organs
Lymphatic Organs are found at
Well defined sites; have CT capsules
Primary lymphatic organs include
-red bone marrow
-thymus
Secondary Lymphatic organs include
-lymph nodes
-tonsiles
-spleen
Lymph nodes
-only organs that filter lymph
-fewer efferent vessels, slows flow through node.
-Capsule gives off trabeculae, divides into compartments containing stroma parenchyma / subdivided into cortex & medulla
Stroma include
reticular CT
Parenchyma include
lymphatic nodules
Lymphadenopathy
-colective term for all lymph node diseases
Lymphadenitis
-swollen, painful node responding to foreign antigen
Lymph nodes are common site for
-metastatic cancer
(swollen, firm and usually painless)
The tonsil is covered by
epithelium
Three types of tonsils
-palatine tonsile
-lingual tonsils
-pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid)
Location of Palatine tonsile
-pari at posterior margin of oral cavity
Location of Lingual tonsil
-pair at root of tongue
Location of Pharyngeal tonsil (Adenoid)
- single tonsil on wall of pharynx
Thymus Capsule gives off
-trabeculae
-divides parenchyma into lobules of cortex and medulla.
The reticular epithelial cells of the thymus do what two things ?
-form blood thymus barrier in cortex
-secretes Hormones
The thymus secrets what three hormones?
-thymopoietin
-thymulin
-thymosins
Why does the thymus secrete hormones ?
-to promote development and action of T lymphocytes
The reticular epithelial cells form blood thymus barrier in the cortex which
-isolates developing T lymphocytes from foreign antigens
The parenchyma of the spleen appears in fresh speciments as
-red pulp
-white pulp
The red pulp of the spleen are :
-sinuses filled with erothrocytes
The white pulp of the speel are:
-lymphocytes, macrophages;
-surrounds small branches of splenic artery
What are the functions of the Spleen ?
-blood production in fetus
-blood reservoir
-RBC disposal
-immune reactions: filters blood, quick to detect antigens
What are the two types of defenses against pathogens ?
-non specific defenses (broadly effective, no prior exposure)
-specific defenses (results from prior exposure, protects against only a particular pathogen)
The non specific defenses include:
-FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE (external barriers)
-SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE (phagocytic cells, antimicrobial proteins, inflammation and fever)
Specific Defenses include:
-THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE
(immune system)
What are the three main external barriers:
-skin
-mucous membranes
-subepithelial areolar tissue
What makes skin an external barrier:
-toughness of keratin
-dry and nurtient-poor
-defensins: peptides, from neurrophils attack microbes
-lactic acid (acid mantle) is a component of perspiration
What makes the Mucous Membrane an external barrier:
-stickiness of mucous
-lysozyme: enzyme destroys bacterial cell walls.
What makes the subepithelial areolar tissue an external barrier ?
-tissue gel: viscous barrier of hyluronic acid
What is Hyaluronidase:
-enzyme used by pathogens to spread
What are leukocytes and cutaneos defenses:
-neutrophils
-eosinophils
-basophils
-monocytes
-lymphocytes
What are the functions of the neutrophils :
-phagocytize bacteria
-create a killing zone
What are the two steps of the neutrophils creating a killing zone:
-degranulation (lysosomes discharge into tissue fluid)
-respiratory burst (toxic chemicals are created (O2, H2O2, HCIO)
What are the functions of the eosinophils:
-phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes
-antiparasitic effects
-promote action of basophils, mast cells
-Enzymes block excess inflammation, limit action of histimine.
What are the functions of basophils:
Aid mobility and action of WBC's by release of
-histimine (vasodilator)
-heparin (anticoagulant)
What does the histamine from the basophils do:
-blood flow to infected tissue
What does the heparin from the basophils do:
-prevents immobilization of phagocytes
What are the functions of the monocytes:
-circulating precursors to macrophages
-specialized macrophages found in specific localities
Specific macrophages are found in which specific localities:
-dendritic cells
-microglia, astrocyres (CNS)
-alveolar macrophages (lungs)
-hepatic macrophages (liver)
Function of the lymphocytes:
CIRCULATING BLOOD CONTAINS:
-80% T cells
-15% B cells
-5% NK (Natural Killer) cells
What are the two Antimicrobial Proteins
-interferons
-complement system
What is the function of the interferons
secreted by certain cells invaded by visuses
-generalized protection
-diffusse to enighboring cells/stimulate them to produce antiviral proteins
-activate natural killer cells and macrophages
What do activated NK cells and macrophages do
-destroy infected host cells
-stimulate destruction of cancer cells
The compliment system includes:
-Compliment (C) proteins in blood that must be activated by pathogens
-pathways of compliment activation: C3 split into C3a and C3b.
What areh thee 3 Pathways used in the compliment system:
-Classical pathway (requires antibody:specific immunity)
-Alternate Pathway (nonspecific immunity)
-Lectin Pathway (Nonspecific immunity)
What are the mechanisms of action used in the Compliment system:
-enhanced inflammation
-phagocytosis
-cytolysis
-immune clearance
What happens in the Membrane Attack Complex:
-compliment proteins form ring in plasma membrane of target cell causing cytolysis
In the Immune Surveillance, the NK (natural killer cells) do what:
-destroy bacteria, transplanted cells, cells infected by viruses and cancer cells
(release perforins and granzymes)
What is Inflammation:
A defensive response to tissue injury which:
-limits spread of pathogens, then destroys them,
-removes debris
-initiates tissue repair
What do cytokines have to do with inflammation:
They are small proteins that regulate inflammation and immunity; includes
-interferons
-interleukins
-tumor necrosis factor
-chemotactic factors
The suffix -itis denotes what:
-inflammation of specific organs
What are the cardinal signs of inflammation:
-REDNESS(caused by hyperemia)
-SWELLING(caused by capillary permeabilit and filtration
-HEAT(caused by hyperemia)
-PAIN(caused by inflammatory chemicals secreted by damaged cells, pressure on nerves)
What are the inflammatory chemicals that cause pain:
-bradykinin
-prostaglandins
What are the three major processes of inflammation:
-mobilization of body deffenses
-containment and destruction of pathogens
-tissue clean-up and repair
What happens in the mobilization of defenses:
-kinins, histamine and leukotrienes are secreted by damaged cells, basophils and mast cells
Kinins, histamine and leukotrienes are secreted by:
-damaged cells
-basophils
-mast cells
Leukocyte Deployment
-margination
(selectins cause leukocytes to adhere to blood vessel walls)
-diapedesis(EMIGRATION)
(leukocytes squeeze between endothelial cells into tissue space)
Containment and Destruction of Pathogens include:
-Fribrinogen (now in tissue clots, trapping pathogens)
-Heparin (preents clotting at site of injury; pathogens in fluid pocket surrounded by clot
Containment and Destruction of Pathogens cont. :
-Chemotaxis (leukocytes are attracted to chemotactic chemicals)
-Neutrophils (are quickest to respond)
-phagocytosis
-respiratory burst
-secrete cytokines for recruitment of macrophages & neutrophils
-macrophages and T cells secrete colony-stimulating factor to stimulate leukopoiesis.
Monocytes become what during tissue cleanup?
macrophages
What are the primary agents for tissue cleanup and when do they arrive?
-monocytes
-8-12 hrs
What does edema venous flow do for tissue cleanup?
- increases lymphatic flow that favors removal of bacteria and debris
During Tissue cleanup there is a formation of pus, which is:
-mixture of tissue fluid
-cellular debris
-dying neutrophils
-microbes
What is the first step of Tissue repair:
(1)blood platelets and endothelial cells in injured area secrete a cytokine (PDGF), that stimulates fibroblasts to multiply and synthesize collagen.
What are the last three steps of tissue repair:
(2)facilitated by hyperemia that provides materials needed and heat that increasees metabolism
(3) fibrin clot may provide a scaffold for repair
(4) pain limits use of body part allowing for repair.
What does a fever do:
-promotes interferon activity
-accelerating metabolic rate and tissue repair
-inhibiting pathogen reproduction
A fever is a :
defense mechanism that does more good then harm
Three stages of fever:
-onset
-stadium
-defervescence
A fever of 105 will cause:
A fever of 111-115 will cause:
-dilerium
-coma,death
What does Natural active immunity do:
(produces memory cells)
-production of one's own antibodies or T cells as a result of iinfection or natural exposure to antigen
What does Artificial active Immunity do:
(produces memory cells)
-production of one's own antibodies or T cells as a result of vaccination
What is Natural Passive Immunity:
(through placenta, milk)
-temporary, fetus acquires antibodies from mother
What is Artificial passive Immunity:
(snakebite, reabies, tetanus)
-temporary, injection of immune serum (antibodies)
Cellular immunity deals with:
Humoral immunity deals with:
cell-mediated (T cells)
antibody mediated (B cells)
What doe antigens do:
Trigger an immune response
What are Epitopes and what do they do:
(antigenic determinants)
-stimulate immune responses
Specific Immunity depends on:
-lymphocytes
The 3 steps to the life cycle of a T cell:
-stem cells in red bone marrow
-mature in thymus
-deployment
Negative Selection Immunocompetent T cells must be able to:
-bind to RE cells
-not reacy to self antigens
Positive Selection Immunocompetent T cells that are able to:
-bind to MHC on RE cell
-not react to self antigens
Site of Development for B Lymphocytes (B Cells)
-other fetal stem cells remain in bone marrow
Self-tolerant B cells form B cell clones which:
-synthesize antigen receptors
-divide rapidely
-produce immunocompetent clones
(APC) stands for:

and the function depends on what type of proteins:
-Antigen-Presenting Cells

-MHC proteins (Major histocompatability complex)
What displays antigens to T cells:
-B cells
-macrophages
What are interleukins:
-chemical messengers between leukocytes
Interleukins are used by ____________ and ______ to communicate:
(1) lymphocytes
(2) APC's
What happens during Cellular Immunity:
-T cells attack foreign cells and diseased host cells;memory of Ag
What are the three classes of T cells:
-Cytotoxic T cells (T-c)
-Helper T cells
-Memory T cells
What do Cytotoxic T cells do:
carry out attack
What do Helper T cells do:
help promote (T-c cell) and B cell action and nonspecific defense mechanisms
What doe Memory T cells do:
-provide immunity from future exposure to antigen
What happens during (Tc) cell activation:
-binding of cytotoxic T cells (CD8)
-costimulation via a cytokine
-triggers clonal selection (Clone of identical T cells against cells with same epitope)
What are the two main points of (Tc) Cell Recognition:
-Antigen Presentation
-(Tc) cell activation
Where are MHC-I proteins found and what do they do:
-on nearly all nucleated body cells
-display peptides produced by host hells
What are the two main things that occur during the
(Attach Phase: Role of Helper T Cells)
-Secrets interleukins
-coordinate humoral and cellular immunity
What happens when the Helper T Cells secrete interleukins:
-attract neutrophils, NK cells, macrophages
-stimulate phagocytosis
-stimulate T and B cell mitosis and maturation
What are the two main points to the Attack Phase: Cytotoxic T Cells:
-Only T cells directly attack enemy cells
-Letal hit mechanism
What are the steps to the lethal hit mechanism:
-docks on cell with antigen MHC-I protein complex
-releases perforin, granzymes-kill target cell
-interferons-decrease viral replication and activates macrophages
-tumor necrosis factor:kills cancer cells
What are two points about Memory T Cells:
-following clonal selection some T cells become memory cells
-long lived; in higher #'s then Naive cells
What is one point about T cell recall response:
-upon reexposure to same pathogen, memory cells launch a quick attack
What are the three steps to Humoral Immunity:
(1) recognition
(2) Attack
(3) Memory
What are the two parts to Recognition of Humoral Immunity
-B cell receptors bind antigen, take in and digest antigen then display epitopes on its MHC-II protein
-After costimulation by (T-H) cell, divide repeatedly, differentiate into plasma cells, priduce antibodies specific to that antigen
What happens during the attack of Humoral immunity:
-antibodies bind to antigen, render it harmless, "tag it" for destruction.
What happens during the Memory phase of Humoral Immunity:
-some B cells differentiate into memory cells
Antibody classes are made by:
-amino acid sequence of C region of antibody
What are included in the Antibody classes:
-IgA
-IgD
-IgE
-IgG
-IgM
What is the IgA:
monomer in plasma; dimer in mucus, saliva, tears, milk, intestinal secretions, prevents adherence to epithelia
What is the IgD:
Monomer; B cell membrane antigen receptor
What is the IgE:
monomer; on mast cells; stimulates release of histamines, attracts eosinophils; immediate hypersensitivity reactions
What is the IgG:
monomer; 80% circulating, crosses placenta to fetus, 2 immune response, complement fixation
What is the IgM:
-pentamer, 10% in plasma, 1 immune response, agglutination, complement fixation
What makes up Antibody Diversity:
-immune system capable of as many as 1 trillion different antibodies
-Somatic recombination
-Somatic hypermutation
What occurs during somatic recombination
-DNA segments shuffled and form new combinations of base sequences to produce antibody genes
What occurs during somatic hypermutation
-B cells in lymph nodules rapidly mutate creating new sequences
What are the 4 main parts to Humoral Immunity Attack:
(1) Neutralization
(2) Complement Fixation
(3) Agglutination
(4) Precipatation
What happens during the neutrilization of Humoral Immunity-Attack:
-antibodies mask pathogenic region of antigen
What happens during COMPLEMENT FIXATION of Humoral Immunity-Attack:
- antigen binds to IgM or IgG, antibody changes shape, initiates complelemt binding: primary defense against foreign cells, bacteria
What happens during AGGLUTINATION of Humoral Immunity-Attack:
-antibody has 2-10 binding sites; binds to multiple enemy cells immobilizing them
What happens during PRECIPITATION of Humoral Immunity -Attack:
-antibody binds to antigen molecules (not cells) creates antigen-antibody complex that precipitates phagocytized by eosinophil
What is Hypersensitivity
An Allergy
-excessive immune reaction against antigens that most people tolerate- allergens
How many types are there for Hypersensitivity:
4
What is Type I of Hypersensitivity:
EXAMPLES:
Type I: Antibody mediated (IgE), acute reaction

-Anaphylaxis
-Asthma
-Anaphylactic Shock
What is Type II of Hypersensitivity:
Type II: Antibody mediated (IgG, IgM) subacute

-
What is Type III of Hypersensitivity:
Type III: Antibody mediated (IgG, IgM) subacute
What is Type IV of Hypersensitivity:
Type IV: cell mediated, delayed (12-72 Hrs)
What are the qualifications of an Autoimmune Disease:
-Failure to self tolerance
-Production of autoantibodies
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Diseases are caused by:
-heredity lack of T and B cells
-vulnerability to opportunistic infection
What is an example of an Immunodeficiency Disease
-AIDS
What is AIDS and what happens:
-HIV structure
-invades Helper T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells by "tricking" them to internalize viruses by receptor mediated endocytosis
-reverse transcriptase (retrovirus), uses viral RNA as tempalte to synthesize DNA, new DNA inserted into host cell DNA, may be dormant for months to years.
What are signs/symptoms of AIDS:
-(EARLY) flulike chills and fever
-progresses to night sweats, fatigue, headache, extreme weight loss, lymphadenitis
-Normal (T-H) cell count=600-1200 in Aids it is <200 cells.
-thrush
-Kaposi sarcoma
What is thrush (the symptom of Aids)
-white patches on mucous membranes
What is Kaposi sarcoma:
when cancer originates in endothelial cells of blood vessels, causes purple lesions in skin.
HIV is transmitted through:
-blood
-semen
-vaginal secretions
-breast milk
-across the placenta
What are the most common means of HIV transmission:
-sexual intercourse (Vaginal, anal, oral)
-contaminated blood products
-contaminated neddles
What are some treatment strategies for HIV
-prevent binding of CD4 proteins of (T-H) cells
-disrupt reverse transcriptase, inhibit assembly of new viruses of their release from host cells
-Medications