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68 Cards in this Set

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What 8 tissues is bone made up of?
1-Bone
2-Cartilage
3-Adipose
4-Dense
5-Connective
6-Nervous
7-Epithelium
8-Blood
What four structures is bone tissue made up of?
1-Osteocytes
2-Osteoclasts
3-Interstitial Lamenellae
4-Osteoblasts
What are the two minerals needed by bones?
1-Calcium phosphate
2-calcium carbonate
What is the job of osteocytes?
To get nutrients for the bone tissue
What is the job of the osteoblast?
To build up the bone tissue
What is the job of an osteoclast?
To break down the bone tissue
Give 5 Functions of bones?
1-Supporting/protecting
2-Attachment site for muscle
3-Storage of minerals
4-Blood cell production occors in red bone marrow
5-Energy storage in yellow bone marrow
Define Hemopoiesis
Production of blood
What is the diaphysis?
the shaft of the bone
Define epiphysis
either end of long bone
Define metaphysis
areas between the epiphysis and diaphysis and include epiphysial plate in growing bone
Which comes first, the epiphyseal line or the epiphyseal plate?
The epiphyseal line
Define articulated cartilage and say what its finction is
cartilage at the end of the bone and it functions as a friction reducer and shock absorber.
Where is yellow bone marrow located?
In the medullary cavity.
Where is red bone marrow located?
In spongy bone.
What is yellow bone marrow used for?
To store energy
What is red bone marrow used for?
To provide spongy bone with blood.
Define Periosteum
The double-layerd membrane on the outside bone
Define Endosteum
The double-layered membrane on the inside of bone
What is the inside layer of the perisoteum or endosteum called?
osteogenic layer
What is the outside layer of the perisoteum or endosteum called?
Fribrous layer
describe the order in which osteocytes are developed
1-mesenchyme cells
2-osteogenic cells proliferate
3-osteoblasts
4-osteocytes
What is the bone matrix made up of?
25% water, 25% collagen fibers, 50% mineral salts
Define Osteon
The functional unit of compact bones
Define Trabeculae
The functional unit of spongy bone
What is another name for calcium phosphate?
Hydroxyapatite
Define calcification
The process of mineral salts being deposited in the framework of the collagen fibers
What makes bone hard?
Mineral salts
What strengthens bone?
Collagen fibers
Define osteoprogenitor cells
undifferentiated cells that can divide to replace themselves and can become osteoblasts.
What happens if your calcium homeostasis is too low?
a heart attack
What happens if your calcium homeostsis is too high?
Respiratory attack
What are the inorganic compounds in bone?
mineral salts: calcium carbonate and hydoxyapatite
What are the organic compounds in bone?
Collagen fibers
What provides bone with its flexibility?
organic collagen fibers
What does acid do to bones?
It destroys the collagen fibers
What is the "old" name for osteon?
Haversian systems
What does an osteon conatin?
blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, osteocytes, calcified matrix
Define interstitial lamellae
older osteons that have been partially removed during tissue remodeling
What does the central canal conatin?
Vessels and nerves
Define the function of canaliculi
it allows communication between osteocytes through fluid
What is another name for spongy bone?
cancellous
Define Trabeculae
lattice work of thin plates of bone-oriented along lines of stress in spongy bone
Where is sspongy bone found?
in ends of long bones and inside flat bones
What does spongy bone have instead of blood vessels?
Red bone marrow
Define periosteal arteries
arteries in the periosteum
What does the nutrients foramen contain?
nutrient vein and nutrient artery
Define osteogenesis (or ossification)
cartilage being transformed into bone
What are the 2 types of ossification?
1-Intramembranous
2-Endochondrial
Define Intramembranous Ossification
Formation directly from or within fibrous connective tissue membranes
Define Endochondrial Ossification
Formationf from hyaline cartilage models
Which way are bones usually made (endochondrial or intramembranous?)
endochondrial
Which bones are not made by endochondrial ossification?
flat bones of the skull and the mandible bone
What are the steps in intramembranous ossification?
1-development of ossification center by mesenchymal cells
2-calcifying matrix
3-formation of trabeculae
4-development of periosteum by mesenchymal cells condensed in periphery
What are the steps in endochondrial ossification?
1-development of cartilage model
2-Growth of cartilage model
3-development of primary ossification center where blood vessels are innovated
4-Development of medullary cavity
5-development of secondary ossification center
6-development of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate
What are the two types of growth that can happen in endochonrial ossification?
1-appositional growth
2-interstitial growth
What are the 2 main differences between the primary ossification center and the secondary ossification center?
1-Primary has medullary cavity while secondary does not
2-primary doesn't have cartilage but secondary does have some
Which comes first: The epiphyseal line or plate?
the epishyseal plate
What is another name for perforating canal?
Volkmann's canal
What direction does the perforating canal run?
horizontally
What direction does the central canal run?
Vertically
What is another name for the central canal?
Haversian canal
What are the 2 factors that affect bone growth?
1-Nutrition
2-Hormonal abnormalities
What vitamin does your appendix produce?
vitamin K
What happens if oversecretion of hGH happens in childhood?
giantism
What happens if undersecretion of hGH happens in childhood?
short stature
What happens if you lack estrogen receptors, male OR female?
you will grow taller than normal
Which hormone is responsible for closure of the growth plate?
estrogen