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190 Cards in this Set

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Baroreceptors
a reflex change in cardiac activity in response to blood pressure change
Chemoreceptors
detect changes in the concentrations of gases or dissolved substances
Fast pain
prickling pain, as caused by an injection or deep cut
free nerve endings
simplest receptors, sensitive to pain from crushing or heat
lamellated corpuscles
large receptors sensitive to pressure
mechanoreceptors
group of receptors sensitive to stretching or compression
nociceptors
pain receptors, are actually free nerve endings in joints.
proprioceptors
moniter the position of joints and tension in joints
referred pain
perception of pain from part of the boyd not actually stimulated.
root hair plexus
free nerve endings stimulated by the movement of hairs
ruffinin corpuscles
deepest receptors sensitive to pressure and skin changes
slow pain
the perception of slower, burning pain
tactile corpuscles
sensitive to fine touch and pressure and low frequency vibration
tactile discs
also merkels discs, fine pressure and touch
thermoreceptors
receptors to changes in temperature
Name the five functions of blood
transport dissolved gases
regulation of pH
restriction of fluid loss
defense against toxins
stablizes body temperature
Basophil
produces histomines
Eosineophil
-fights parasites
-a granulocyte similar in size to neutrophils and attatch objects coated with antibodies
-contain heparin
Erythrocyte
-carries oxygen
-lack a nucleus
-carries carbon dioxide
-a biconcave disc
-move single file throuh capillaries
-live for 90-120 days
lymphocyte
-found in lymph nodes
monocyte
nucleus is large and fills almost the entire cell
neutrophil
most common white cell
platelet
nucleus is also large and fill almost the entire cell
Anastomoses
interconnections between arteries
AV bundle
bundle of his, part of conducting system in interventricular septum
AV node
the conducting cells in the atrial walls
cardiac output
amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in a minute
chordea tendinae
connective tissue fibers attactching the atrioventricular valves
coronary sinus
a large thin-walled vein in the posterior portion of the coronary sulcus
coronoary sulcus
a deep groove in the anterior surface of the heart filled with fat and blood vessels
diastole
relaxation phase of the heart
intercalated discs
connections of desmosomes and gap junctions of adjacent cardiac cells
papillary muscles
cone shaped projections on the inner ventricular surface, attached to chordae
pericardium
serous membrane around the heart
purkinje fibers
branches of the conduction system into the ventricles
SA node
the pacemaker of the heart in the right atrium
systole
the contraction phase of the heart
arteriole
blood vessels leading to capillaries
artery
group of blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
capillary
smallest blood vessels with wall of one layer of endothelium
carotid body
chemoreceptor monitoring the composition of arterial blood to head
elastic
walls of these are dominated by elastic fibers rather than smooth muscle
muscular
wall of these medium arteries distribute blood to internal organs
pulmonary
circuit of blood to and from the lungs
sphincter
circular smooth muscle found at the beginning of the capillary bed
systemic
circuit of blood to body to suply oxygen and back to right atrium
tunica externa
sheath of connective tissue around an artery
tunica interna
endothelial lining on an artery
tunica media
layer containing smooth muscle in the artery
valves
structure preventing backflow of blood in veins
venule
smaller vessels that form from the capillary veins
arteries
-carries blood away from hear
-large lumen
capillaries
-exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide occurs in these
-wall is one cell thick
veins
-valves present along their length
-varicose; form in these
axillary
takes blood to armpit
brachial
takes blood to upper arm
common carotid
takes blood in the neck toward the head
common iliac
branch of abdominal aorta toward pelvis and leg
external iliac
takes blood towards pelvic area
gastric
takes blood toward stomach
intercostals
takes blood to the ribs
internal iliac
takes blood to and supplies bladder and reproductive area
radial artery
takes blood to forearm on the thumb side
renel artery
takes blood to the kidney
subclavian artery
takes blood to the shoulder
ulnar artery
takes blood to the forearm, pinkie side
Name the five functions of the respiratory system
1) Gas exchange between air and blood
2) Moves air to and from the gas-exchange surfaces of the lungs
3) protects the respiratory surface from dehydration and temperature changes and defends against invading pathogens
4) produce sounds and speech
5) providing olfactory sensations to the central nervous system for the sense of smell
Alveolous
air sac, where gases are exchanged
cricoid
laryngeal cartilage providing posterior support
diaphragm
muscle inferior to lungs that causes lungs to inflate when contracted
epiglottis
flap of tissue and cartilage covering the esophagus during swallowing
expiration
breathing out
glottis
narrow opening in larynx
hemoglobin
pigment in blood that carries oxygen
inspiration
breathing in
pleura
serous membrane around lungs
residual volume
amount of air remaining in lungs after maximal exhalation
respiratory rate
amount of air moved into and out of lungs in one minute
thyroid
cartilage forming the anterior surface of larynx
tidal volume
air that moves into and out of lungs in one breath
tracheal cartilage
a C shaped ring of cartilage helping to keep trachea open
vocal chords
fold of tissure betwen laryngeal cartilage that aids in speech
Name the 6 related processes to digestion
Ma Dies!
1) Mechanical processing
2) absorption
3) Digestion
4) Ingestion
5) Excretion
6) Secretion
appendix
fingerlike projection off the cecum, has no known function
bile
secretion of liver that emulsifies fat
bolus
ball of food formed after being mixed with saliva
chief cells
secrete protien, pepsinogen
chyme
food mixed with digestive juices in the stomach
mastication
chewing
pepsin
a protein digesting enzyme
peristalsis
a rythmic wave of contraction moving substances along the digestive tract
plicae cirulares
circular folds in the wall of the small intestine
rugae
folds in the wall of the stomach, allowing it to expand
saliva
secretion digestion starches in the mouth
Villi
fingerlike projection in small intestine, increasing surface area
Name the four function of the urinary system
1) regulation of blood volume and blood pressure
2) regulating plasma concentrations of ions
3) helps to stablize PH
4) conserving valuable nutrients
creatinine
waste product from breakdown of RNA
filtration
liquid formed from water being pusehd across the membrance in the renal corpuscle
glomerulus
ball of capillaries of the renal corpuscle
hilum
a notch in the medial surface of the kidney, where ureters leave
micturition
urination
nephron
structural and functional unit of the kidney
reabsorption
transport of solutes out of the capillaries and into te filtrate
renal pelvis
cavity at medial portion of kidney where urine colletcs
retroperitioneal
location of kidney, outside the abdominal cavity
secretion
removal of water and solutes from filtrate back into blood
urea
most abundant organic waste from breakdown of amino acids
ureters
tube carrying urine from the kidney to bladder
urethra
tube from the bladder passing urine out of the body
uric acid
waste product from breakdown of RNA
IN MALES ONLY
scrotum
testes
prostate
epididymis
ductus defrens
IN FEMALES ONLY
ovary
fimbrae
vagina
vestibular glands
mons pubis
clitoris
In BOTH FEMALES AND MALES
gonads
urethra
erectile tissue
Corpus spongiosum
tissue containing spaces that fills with blood during arousal
ejaculation
forcible release of sperm
fertilization
uniting of ovum and sperm to form a zygote
follicle
in ovary, where occytes grow and ova mature
infundibulum
the expanded funnel shaped opening of the uterine tube near the ovary
interstitial cells
cells in testes producing hormones
lactation
production of milk
menarche
the first menstul period of a female at puberty
menses
the first phase of the menstrual cycle when the endometrium breaks down
ovulation
release of ovum from ovary
follicle
in ovary where occytes from and ova mature
infundibulum
the expanded funnel shaped opening of the uterine tube near the ovary
interstial cells
cells in testes producing hormones
sustenacular cells
cells in testes that nourish the developing sperm
tunica albuginea
fibrous capsule enclosing the testis
zona pellucida
region around the surface of the oocyte containing microvilli
Name five effects of pregnancy on other systems
1)maternal respiratory rate goes up and tidal volume increases
2) maternal blood volume increases
3) maternal requirements for nutrients and vitamins climb 10-30 percent
4) maternal glomular filtration rate increases by 50 percent
5) mammary glands increase
allantois
sac of endoderm and mesoderm that becomes the urinary bladder
amnion
encloses a fluid that cushions embryo and fetus during development
blastocoel
center cavity of the hollow ball of cells
blastocyst
a hollow bowl of cells coming from a zygote
blastmeres
genetically identical cells arising from a zygote
chorion
contains blood vessels that create a pathway linking the embryo with trophoblast
cleavage
a series of cell divisons beginning after fertilization
gastrulation
movement of cells from the inner cell mass forming the three germ layers
morula
solid ball of cells resembling a mulberry
placenta
structure in uterine wall providing a site for diffusion between blood of fetus and mother
trophoblast
the outer wall of cells in the blastocyst
yolk sac
the first embryonic membrane to appear, contains blood vessels
amniotic fluid
cushions baby during development
endoderm
layer of cells facing the blastocel; will form digestive system
ectoderm
superficial layer of cells in contact with the amniotic cavity; becomes skin
episotomy
an incision through the perineum
gestation
the time spent in prenatal development
implantation
when the sygote becomes embedded in the endometrium
mesoderm
poorly organized layer of cells; will become the muscular system
premature labor
contraction begin before fetal development is complete
relaxin
hormone causing dilation
umbilical cord
attactchent of baby tp placenta
uterine tube
site of fertilization of ovum by sperm
aldesterone
stimulates sodium and water conservation in kidney's
gonadotropin- releasing hormone
stimulates follicle develpoment in females
inhibin
stops the secreation of fsh
lutenizing hormone
stimulates ovulation in females
oxytoxin
causes contraction of uterine muscles during childbirth
progesterone
stimulates growth of the lining of the uterus
rennin
release by kidney's when O2 levels or pressure drops
testosterone
male secondary sex characteristics
aneurysm
weakened artery that make explode under pressure
arteriorsclerosis
hardening the arteries
atherosclerosis
fat depostics in the lumen of an artery
bronchitis
inflamation of the air tubes inferior to the trachea
embolism
a moving blood clot
hemophilia
bleeders disease
leukemia
cancer involving the white blood cells
myocardial infarction
a heart attack
Oophoritis
inflammation of the ovaries
orchitis
inflammation of the testes
phlebitis
inflammation of the viens, in legs
apnea
when breathing stops
cystitis
inflammation of the lining of the bladder
edema
accumulation of fluid, particularily in the joints
gall stones
deposits of bile salts and mineral tubules
glaucoma
eye disorder when pressure inside eye raises due to inadequete drainage
glycosuria
the presence of glucosa in the urine
nephritis
inflammation of the kidney's
nystagmus
abnormal eye movements after brain or inner ear is damaged
pleurisy
inflammation of the membranes around the lungs
presbyopia
loss of elasticity of the lends
prostate cancer
a tumor in the male gland
vaginitis
inflammation of birth canal
Cardiovascular aging effects
calcium salts deposited in walls of vessels
respiratory aging effects
chest movements restricted due to arthritic
digestive aging effects
weaker peristaltic contractions
urinary aging effects
prostate enlarges
reproductive againg effects
weaker peristaltic contraction
what color is bubble gum?
PIIIIIINK