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83 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
neutral atom
has no overall electrical charge
number of positive charges =number of negative
Ion
electrically hcarged atom
cation
+ charged (loses electrons)
anion
-charged (loses electrons)
Atomic Mass
to sum o number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
AM=P+N
Atomic number
number of protons
*number of protons =number of electrons
OCTET RULE
in order for an atom to be cheically stable there needs to be eiht electrons in its outer most orbital
molecule
2 or more atoms bonded together
compound
2 or more different atoms(elements) are bonded
inorganic compounds
made of non-carbon elements(periodic table)
organic compounds
use carbon as the major structural element
covalent bonding
sharing of electrons between atoms
polar covalent bonding
unequal sharing of electrons (enable to dissolve in H20)
ionic bonding
attraction of oppositely charged atoms
hydrogen bonding
formed by ionic attraction of hydrogen ion and a negative charge onanother molecule ie water molecule and salt
carbohydrates
(C,H,O)
ratio of H to O is always 2:1
structural unit(monomer) is monosaccharide (glucose, galactose, starch, sugar)
function is a source of quick energy
proteins
(C,H,O,N)
struction unit=Amino Acid(20)
function=enzymes(regulate chemical reaction),Hormones(messengers) building martials
special bond between amino group &carboxyl group =peptide bond
lipids
(C,H,O)
structural unit=fatty acids
saturated fats=all single hydrogen bonds(bad for health) animal fats
unsaturated fats=one ormore doupble bonds(good for you) plant oil
function=storage of large quantities of energy, steroids, help control saturated fats
nucleic acids
(A,T,C,G)
structural units=nucleotide
finction=genetic codes, protein syntheses
ATP special enrgy unit for all rections
pH scale
range is 1-14
acid=1-6 base=8-14 neutral=7
acids release hyrogen ions(H)
bases release hydroxide (OH)
buffer-a sublstance that
resist changes in the pH
solution
made of two components
solute-substance that is dissolved(salt)
solvent-substance which dissolves the solute(water)
colloids
solutions which have solutes that are large & will not pass through membranes ie:gelatin, proteins
suspensions
solutes are very large; too heavy to remain suspended; eventually affected by gravity ie:blood
decomposition
when a large molecule is broken into smaller units ie:digestin, catabolic reactions
synthesis
when small molecules are linked together forming large molecules ie:making proteins, fats &glycogen
exchange reactions
AB + CD = AC + BD
molecules exchange atom pairs
interphase
cell growth
normal activities take place
mitosis
division of nucleus
prophase
centrioles go polar
metaphase
equator line up
anaphase
chromosomes to polar
telophase
stretching of cytoplasm
cytokinesis
division of cytoplasm
inorganic
no carbon
water
polar molecule
universal solvent
pulls apart electrically charged molecules
the mose important property of nay chemical is does it dissolve in H2O
acids
releases hydrogen ions(proton donor) 1-6.999 pH
bases
absorbs hydrogen ions(releases OH) 7-14 pH
lower # H stronger the base
salts
ionic bonded comopound-results (product) of
neutrolization process
pH scales and buffers
1-14 scale
lower pH #=stronger acid
higher pH #=stronger base
buffer-substance which
resists changes in pH
sodium bicarbonate
organic
contains carbon as the major component
carbohydrates
source of quick energy
hydrophalic
monosaccharides
1 unit
glucose
galactose
fructose
disaccharides
2 units
sucrose
maltose
lactose
polysaccharides
many units
starch
glycogen
cellulose
neutral fats
triglycerides
made of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol-can't release H+(organic acid)
phospholipids
a phosphate group replaces one fatty acid used in building membranes
steriods
formed from cjolesterol, carbon form four rings; cortisol, progesterone, estrogens, testosterone, bile acids
proteins
C,H,O,N
when body gets to protein for energy usually starvation
amino acids
monoers (20)
proetein structure
Primary
sequence of amino acids
protein structure
secondary
coiled by hydrogen bonds between NH2 and COOH groups. alpha helix and beta folds are the shapes tha can develop
bases
absorbs hydrogen ions(releases OH) 7-14 pH
lower # H stronger the base
salts
ionic bonded comopound-results (product) of
neutrolization process
pH scales and buffers
1-14 scale
lower pH #=stronger acid
higher pH #=stronger base
buffer-substance which
resists changes in pH
sodium bicarbonate
organic
contains carbon as the major component
carbohydrates
source of quick energy
hydrophalic
monosaccharides
1 unit
glucose
galactose
fructose
disaccharides
2 units
sucrose
maltose
lactose
polysaccharides
many units
starch
glycogen
cellulose
neutral fats
triglycerides
made of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol-can't release H+(organic acid)
phospholipids
a phosphate group replaces one fatty acid used in building membranes
steriods
formed from cjolesterol, carbon form four rings; cortisol, progesterone, estrogens, testosterone, bile acids
proteins
C,H,O,N
when body gets to protein for energy usually starvation
amino acids
monoers (20)
proetein structure
Primary
sequence of amino acids
protein structure
secondary
coiled by hydrogen bonds between NH2 and COOH groups. alpha helix and beta folds are the shapes tha can develop
protein structure
tertiary
folding due to interatction between R-groups
globular protein-cell
membrane
fibrous proteins-muscle,skin
hair
quaternary
when two or more polypeptide chains bond together ie:hemoglobin
protein structure
structure determines functions
lock-n-key
enzymes-biological catalyst
substrate-substance action
on by enzyme
active site-place where
bonding will occure
the cell membrane
phospohlipid bilaryer structure
outer & inner boundaries are
hydrophilic
middle layer is hydrophilic
fluid mosaic model
the cell membrane
embedded proteins
receptors-cell communication
with certain messengers
channel proteins-passage
ways for hydrophilic solutes
carriers-help transfer
certain molecules into cell
the cell membrane
special membrane anatomy
microvilli-increases surface
area of cell & + diffusion
of materials
gap junctions-communication
tubes-passing molecules
between cells
tight junctions-water tight
barriers
mechanical junctions(desmosomes)- barriers
allows for stretching w/o
separating cells(tissue)
membrane function
transporation
selectivity
polarity, molecular size, and gates
passive transportation
no ATP used
diffusion
movement from high concentration to lower concentration until equilibrium
facilitated diffusion
assisted movement but does not use additional energer (conveyer belt)
osmosis
diffusion of water
isotonic solutions
solute concentration of solution+solute concentration of cell
NO GAIN OR LOSS IN VOLUME OF CELL
hypotonic solutions
less solute in solution than in cell; cell will swell-take in water
RAISON---GRAPE
hypertonic solutions
greater solute concentration in solution than in cell cell will loose water
GRAPE--RAISEN
active transport
REQUIRES ATP to supply energy
Ion/solute pumps
Na/K pump in nervous system moving against gradient
bulk transport
exocytosis-moving out of cell
endocytosis-phagocytosis &pinocytosis-moving into the cell
phagocytosis large molecules the emembran extends to caputre solid materials
inocytosis-movement of liguids in &out of cell