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41 Cards in this Set

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ANATOMY
-study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
-gross or macroscopic
-microscopic
-developmental
(GROSS ANATOMY)
1. REGIONAL
2. SYSTEMIC
3. SURFACE
1. all structures in one part
of body (ei.abdomen,leg)
2. gross anatomy of the body
studied by system
3. study of internal structure
as they relate to skin
(MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY)
1. CYTOLOGY
2. HISTOLOGY
1. study of the cell
2. study of tissues
(DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY)
1. EMBRYOLOGY
* traces structural changes throughout life
1. study of developmental
changes in the body before
life
PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY
study of structural changes caused by disease
RADIOGRAPHIC ANATOMY
study of internal structures visualized by x-ray
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level
PHYSIOLOGY
*focuses on the FUNCTION of the body, often at a molecular or cellular level
-considers the operation of specific organ systems
PRINCIPLE OF COMPLEMENTARITY
-function always reflects structure
-what a structure can do depends on its specific form
LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION
1.chemical-atoms combined to form molecules
2.cellular-cells are made of molecules
3.tissue-consists of similar cells
4.organ-made up of different types of tissues
5.organ system-consists of different organs that work together
6.organismal-made up of the different organ systems
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
*largest organ*
-forms external body covering
-skin,sweat & oil glands, hair, and nails
-protects tissues from injury
-SYNTHESIZES VITAMIN D
SKELETAL SYSTEM
-bone, cartilage, & ligaments
-protects and supports organs
-provides framework for muscle
-site of blood cell formation
(bone marrow)
-stores minerals
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
3 muscles:skeletal,cardiac,
smooth
-composed of muscles & tendons
-allows manipulatio of environment, locomotion, and facial expressions
-maintains posure
-produes heat
NERVOUS SYSTEM
-composed of brain, spinal column, and nerves
-is the fast acting control system of the body
-responds to stimuli by actvation muscles and glands
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
-composed of glands that influence metabolic activity
-secretes that maintain body homeostasis over a long period of time
-works with nervous system to control other body systems
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
-composed of heart and blood vessels
-the heart pumps blood
-blood vessles transport blood throughtout the body
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM (IMMUNITY)
-red blood marros, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels
-picks up fluid leaked from blood vessles and returns it to blood
-disposes of debris in lymphatic system
-houses white blood cells involved with immunity
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
*exchanges of gases*
-nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
-keeps blood supplid with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
-oral cavity, espohagus, stomach, small/large intestine, rectum, anus, liver
-breaks down food to absorbable units that enter blood
-eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces
URINARY SYSTEM
-kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
-eliminates nitrogenous wastes from body
-regulates water, electrolytes, and pH balance of blood
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
-prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, ductus deferens
-produce offspring
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
-mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
-produce offspring
NECESSARY LIFE FUNCTIONS I
1.Maintaing boundries
2.Movement
3.Responsiveness
4.Digestion
1.internal environment is distinct from the external
cellular level- plasma membranes
organismal level- skin
2.locomotion,peristalsis, contractability
3.sense change in environment and respond
4. breakdown indigested foodstuff
NECESSARY LIFE FUNCTIONS II
1.Metabolism
2.Excretion
3.Reproduction
4.Growth
1.all the chemical reactions occur in the body
2.removal of waste from body
3.cellular and organismal
cellular-original cell divides and produces 2 identical daughter cells
organismal-sperm and egg unite to make person
4.increase in size of body of the organism
SURVIVAL NEEDS
1.Nutrients-chemical substances used for energy and cell building
2.Oxygen- metabolic reaction
3.Water-provides necessary environment for chemical reactions
4.Maintain normal body temp-for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates
5.Atmospheric pressure- for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs
HOMEOSTASIS
-ability to maintain a stable internal environment
-internal environment of body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium
-chemical,thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis
HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL MECHANISM
1.RECEPTOR-monitors environment & responds to environment
2.CONTROL CENTER-determines the set point at which the variable is maintained
3.EFFECTOR-provides the means to respond to the stimulus
POSITIVE FEEDBACK
-the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimuli
e.i. regulation of blood clotting
HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCE
-disturbance of homeostasis or body's normal equilibrium
-overwhelming of negative feedback allowing destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over
ANATOMICAL POSITION
1.SUPINATE
1.body erect,feet slightly apart,palms facing FORWARD, thumbs point away from body
1.SUPERIOR
2.INFERIOR
3.ANTERIOR
4.POSTERIOR
1.toward the head
2.away from the head
3.toward front of body
4.toward back of body
1.MEDIAL
2.LATERAL
3.INTERMDEIATE
1.toward the midline
2.away from midline
3.between a more medial and lateral structure
1.PROXIMAL
2.DISTAL
3.SUPERFICIAL
4.DEEP
1.closer to origin of the body
2.farther from origin of body
3.toward the body surface
4.away from body surface
1.SAGITTAL
2.MIDSAGITTAL OR MEDIAL
3.FRONTAL OR CORONAL
4.TRANSVERSE OR HORIZONTAL
5.OBLIQUE SECTION
1.divides body right and left
2.sagital plane lies midline
3.divides anterior/posterior
4.divides superior/inferior
5.cuts made diagonally
DORSAL CAVITY PROTECTS NERVOUS SYSTEM
(2 SUBDIVISION)
1.cranial cavity-in skull encases the brain
2.vertebral cavity-runs withing the vertebral column encases spinal cord
*ventral cavity house internal organs (viscera)2 subdivisions:thoracic & abdominopelvic
THORACIC CAVITY DIVIDED INTO:
1.PLEURAL CAVITIES
2.MEDIASTINUM
3.PERICARDIAL
1.each houses a lung
2.contains pericarial cavity & remaining thoracic organs
3.encloses the heart
ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY SEPERATED FROM THORACIC CAVITY BY DIAPHRAGM
(2 SUBDIVISIONS)
1.abdominal cavity-stomach, intestines,spleen,liver,& other organs
2.pelvic cavity-lies within pelvis and contains bladder,reproductive orgnans, and rectum
VENTRAL BODY CAVITY MEMBRANES
1.parietal serosa-lines internal body walls
2.visceral serosa-covers the internal organs
3.serous fluid-seperates the serosae
1.ORAL AND DIGESTIVE
2.NASAL
3.ORBITAL
4.MIDDLE EAR
5.SYNOVIAL
1.mouth and cavities or the digestive organs
2.in & posterior to the nose
3.house the eyes
4.contains bones(ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations
5.joint cavities
ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS
-umbilical
-epigastric
-hypogastric
-right & left iliac or inguinal
-right & left lumbar
-right & left hypochondriac
ABDOMINOPELVIC QUADRANTS
-right upper
-left upper
-right lower
-left lower