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172 Cards in this Set

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Humans are classified in a group called _________ because of their segmented vertebral column.
Vertebrates
The words "anatomy and physiology" have what kind of origins?
Greek
Does someone studying anatomy look at how a particular muscle attaches to the skeleton or at how the muscle contracts?
How a particular muscle attaches to the skeleton
Does someone studying physicology look at how a particular muscle attaches to the skeleton or at how the muscle contracts?
How the muscle contracts
Would an anatomist look at how the truck is put together or how the truck works?
How the truck is put together
Would a physiologist look at how the truck is put together or how the truck works?
How the truck works
What 6 things are included in descriptive anatomy?
appearance, size, shape, location, weight and color
What 2 groups can anatomy be broken into?
Gross (macroscopic) anatomy and microscopic anatomy
What does surgical anatomy deal with?
Landmarks on the body that are useful during surgical procedures.
What is surface anatomy?
The study of general form and superficial markings
What does regional anatomy focuse on?
The anatomical organization of specific areas of the body such as the head, neck, trunk, etc.
What is systemic anatomy?
the study of the structure of orgran systems such as the skeletal and muscular systems
What does developmental anatomy describe?
The changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity
What are some examples of subspecialties that clinical anatomy includes?
Medical anatomy (anatomical features that change during illness

Radiographic anatomy (anatomical structures seen using specialized imaging techniques)
What can a dissecting microscope see?
Tissues
What can a light microscope see?
basic details of cell structure
What can an electron microscope see?
individual molecules
What 2 major subdivisions does microscopic anatomy include?
cytology and histology
What do tissues combine to form?
organs
Where is the line crossed from microscopic to macroscopic anatomy?
At the organ
What is cell physiology?
The study of the function of cells and chemical reactions between and within cells
What is special physiology?
the study of the physiology of specific organs
What is systemic physiology?
includes all aspects of the functioning of specific organ systems
what is pathological physiology?
the study of hte effects of disease on organ or system functions.
What are the 3 forms of information a physician looks for to analyze a patient?
anatomical, physiological and psychological
Name the 11 body systems listed in your book.
Integumentary
Skeletal
Muscular
Nervous
Endocrine
Cardiovascular
Lymphatic
Respiratory
Digestive
Urinary
Reproductive
Name the 7 levels of organization to be concerned with at this time in order from smallest.
Atoms,
Molecules
Protein Filaments
cells
Tissue
Organ
Organ Systems
What are a molecules functional properties determined by?
It's 3-D shape
What are the 4 major organs of the Integumentary System?
Skin
Hair
Sweat Glands
Nails
What are the 3 functions of the Integumentary System?
Protects against environmental hazards

Helps regulare body temperature

Provides sensory information
What are the 4 major organs of the skeletal system?
Bones
Cartilages
Associated Ligaments
Bone Marrow
What are the 3 functions of the skeletal system?
Procides support and protection for other tissues

Stores calcium and other minterals

Forms blood cells
What are the 2 major organs of the muscular system?
Skeletal muscles
Associated Tendons
What are the 3 funtions of the muscular system?
Provides movement

Provides protection and support for other tissues

Generates heat that maintains body temperature
What are the 4 major organs of the nervous system?
Brain
spinal Cord
Peripheral nerves
sense organs
What are the 3 functions of the nervous system?
Directs immediate responses to stimuli

Coordinates or moderates activities of other ogran systems

Provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions
What are the 6 major organs of the endocrine system?
Pituitary Gland
Thyroid Gland
Pancreas
Adrenal Glands
Gonads (testes and ovaries)
Endocrine tissues in other systems
What are the 3 functions of the endocrine system?
Directs long-term changes in teh activities of other organ systems

Adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body

Controls many structural and functional changes during development
What are the 3 major organs of the cardiovascular system?
Heart
Blood
Blood Vessels
What are the 2 functions of the cardiovascular system?
Distributes blood cells, water and dissolved materials, including nutrients, waste products, oxygen and carbon dioxide

Distributes heat and assists in control of body temperatue
What are the 5 major organs of the Lyphatic system?
Spleen
Thymus
Lymphatic vessels
Lymph nodes
Tonsils
What are the 2 major functions of the lyphatic system?
Defends against infection and disease

Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
What are the 7 major organs of the respiratory system?
Nasal cavities
Sinuses
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Lungs
Alveoli
What are teh 4 major functions of the respiratory system?
Delivers air to alveoli

Provides oxygen to bloodstream

Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream

Produces sounds for communication
What are teh 10 major organs of the digestive system?
Teeth
Tongue
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Liver
Gall Bladder
Pancreas
What are the 4 major functions of the digestive system?
Processes and digests food

Absorbs and conserves water

Absorbs nutriends

Stores energy reserves
What are the 4 major organs of the urinary system?
Kidneys
Ureters
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
What are the 4 major functions of the urinary system?
Excretes waste products from the blood

Controls water balance by regulating volume of the urine produced

Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination

Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH
What are the 7 major organs of the male reproductive system?
Testes
Epididymis
Ducturs deferens
Seminal vesicles
Prostate gland
Penis
Scrotum
what is the ONE function of the male reproductive system?
Produces male sex cells (sperm) and hormones
What are the 7 major organs of the female reproductive system?
Ovaries
Uterine Tubes
Uterus
Vagina
Labia
Clitoris
Mammary Glands
What are the 3 major functions of the female reproductive system?
Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones

Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery

Provides milk to nourish newborn infant
What two mechanisms are involved in homeostatic regulation?
autoregulation and extrinsic regulation
When does autoregulation occur?
when a cell, tissue, organ or organ system adjusts its activities automatically in response to environmental change
What is another name for autoregulation?
intrinsic regulation
What is an example of autoregulation?
when oxygen levels decline in a tissue, the cells release chemicals that dilate local blood vessels increasing hte rate of bloodflow and provides the region with more oxygen
What is extrinsic regualtion?
results from the activities of either the nervous or endocrine system
What is an example of extrinsic regulation?
when exercising the nervous system tells the heart to beat faster and also reduces blood flow to less active organs such as the digestive tract
what kind of responses does the nervous system direct?
rapid, short term and very specific
How does the endocrine system get the body to respond?
It releases hormones that aren't immediately apparent.
What does the endocrine system play a major role in?
growth and development
What are the 3 parts that a homeostatic regulatory mechanism consists of?
A Receptor,
control Center
and an Effector
What is a receptor?
A sensor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change or stimulus
What is a control center?
It receives and processes the information supplied by the receptor and sends out commands
what is another name for the control center?
the integration center
What is an effector?
a cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center
In homeostatic control of beody temperature what is the control center?
the hypothalamus
What two receptors does the hypothalamus receive information from?
one in the skin

one in the hypothalamus
If body temperature rises above 37.2C, what effectors does the control center taget?
Muscle tissue in teh walls of blood vessels supplying the skin

sweat glands
When asleep is your thermoregulatory set point higher or lower?
lower
What are the 2 reasons that body temperature set point could vary?
small oscillations around the set oint

changes in the set point
what 5 things are homeostatic set points determined by?
genetic factors,
age
environment
gender
health
what is an example of positive feedback in the body?
glood cloting
What is dynamic equilibrium?
when all systems are working together to maintain a state of equilibrium
What is the integumentary system's function regarding body temerature?
heat loss
What is the muscular system's function regarding body temperature?
head production
what is the cardiovascular system's function regarding body temperature?
Heat distribution
What are the nervous system's 3 functions regarding body temperature?
Coordination of blood flow, heat production and heat loss.
What is the Cardiovascular system's function regarding blood pressure?
pressure generated by the hear moves blood through blood vessels
What is the nervous and endocrine system's function regarding blood pressure?
Adjustments in heart rate and blood vessel diameter can raise or lower blood pressure
What is the urinatry system's function regarding waste product concentration?
Elimination or waste products from the blood
What is the cardiovasuclar system's function regarding waste product concentration?
Transport of waste products to tsites of excretion
What is the urinatry system's fuction regarding body fluid volume?
elimination or conservation of water from teh blood
What is the digestive system's function regarding body fluid volume?
Absorption of water; loss of water in feces
What is the Integumentary system's function regarding body fluid volume?
Loss of water through perspirtation
What is the cardiovascular system's function regarding body fluid volume?
distribution of water
What is the digestive system's function regarding body fluid comoposition?
nutrient absorption, sotrage and release
What is the cardiovascular system's function in regards to body fluid composition?
nutrient distribution
What is the Urinary system's function in regards to body fluid composition?
Control of nutrient loss in the urine
What is the respiratory system's function in regards to body fluid composition?
Absorption or oxygen, elimination of carbon dioxide
What is the cardiovascular system's fucntion in regards to body fluid composition (gases)?
Internal transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
What are eponyms?
commemorative names that are being replaces by more technical ones
What is a person lying down in the anatomic position face up called?
supine
what is a person lying down in the anatomic position face down called?
prone
Name the 9 abdominopelvis regions
Right hypochondriac region
Epigastric region
left hypochondriac region
right lumbar region
umbilical region
left lumbar region
right inguinal region
hypogastric (pubic) region
left inguinal region
What region is the Cephalon in?
Cephalic Region
What is a cephalon?
a head
What is a cervicis?
a neck
what region is the cervicis in?
cervical region
what is a thoracis?
a thorax or chest
what region is the thoracis in?
thoracic region
What is a brachium?
an arm
what region is the brachium in?
the brachial region
what in an antebrachium?
a forearm
what region is the antebrachium in?
the antebrachial region
what is a carpus?
a wrist
what is a manus?
a hand
what is a lumbus?
a loin
what is a gluteus?
a buttock
what is a pubis?
an anterior pelvis
what is an inguen?
a groin
what is a femur?
a thigh
what is a crus?
an anterior leg
what is a sura?
a calf
what is a tarsus?
an ankle
what is a pes?
a foot
what is a planta?
the sole of the foot
What regious in the carpus in?
the carpal region
what region is the manus in?
the manual region
what region is the abdomen in?
the abdominal region
What region is the lubus in?
the lumbar region
what region is the gluteus in?
the gluteal region
what region is the pelvis is?
the pelvic region
what region is the inguen in?
the inguinal region
what region is the femur in?
the femoral region
what region is the crus in?
the crural region
what region is the sura in?
the sural region
what region is the tarsus in?
the tarsal region
what region is the pes in?
the pedal region
what region is the planta in?
the plantar region
what is a plane?
an axis
what is a section
a single view or slice along a plane
Where does a transverse plane lie?
at right angles to the long axis of the body
what is a cut in the transverse plane called?
a transverse section or "cross section"
Are the frontal and sagittal plane parallel or perpendicular to the long axis of the body?
parallel
What does the frontal plane divide the body into?
anterior and posterior
what does the sagittal plane divide the body into?
left and right portions
what 2 essential functions do body cavities have?
protect delicate organs such as the brain and spinal cord from teh bumps and thumps that occur when we walk, jujmp or run

permit significant changes in the size and shape of hte organs (ex. lungs, heart, urinary bladder and stomach)
What is the ventral body cavity also knows as?
the coelom
What does the diaphragm divide the ventral body cavity into?
the superior thoracic cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity
What divides the ventral body cavity into the superior thoracic cavity and the inferior abdominopelvic cavity?
the diaphragm
What is the thoracic cavity bounded by?
the chest wall
what is the inferior abdominopelvic cavity enclosed by?
the abdominal wall and bones and muscles of the pelvis
what is a serous membrane?
a delicate layer that lines the walls of internal cavities and covers the surfaces of hte enclosed viscera
What are serous membranes moistened by?
a watery fluid
what are serous membranes moistened?
to reduce friction
what is the portion of a serous membrane that covers a visceral organ called?
a visceral layer
What is the layer that lines the inner surface of a visceral organ called?
the parietal layer
What does the thoracic cavity contain?
the lungs and heart; associated organ so fthe respiratory, cardiovascular and lymphatic systems; the inferior portions of the esophagus and the thymus
What is the thoracic cavity divided into?
left and right pleural cavities
What are the left and right pleural cavities of the thoracic cavity separated by?
The mediastinum
What organ does each pleural cavity of the thoracic cavity contain?
a lung lined by a serous membrane
what is a serous membrane lining a pleural cavity called?
a pleura
what does the mediastinum consist of?
a mass of connective tissue
What is the mediastinum's funtion?
it surrounds, stabilizes and supports the esophagus, trachea and thymus
What cavity does the mediastinum contain?
pericardial cavity
What is the pericardial cavity?
a small chamber that surrounds the heart
What is the serous membrane that covers the heart called?
the pericardium
what are the boundaries of the abdominopelvic cavity?
from the diaphragm to the pelvis
The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior __________________ cavity and an inferior _________ cavity.
abdominal and pelvic
what cavity that's lined by a serous membrane does the abdominopelvic cavity contain?
The peritoneal cavity
What is another name for the peritoneal cavity?
the peritoneum
What 5 organs does the abdominal cavity contain?
liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine and most of the large intestine
Why are the kidneys and pancreas said to be retroperitoneal?
because they lie between the peritoneal lining and muscular wall of the abdominal cavity
What are the walls of the pelvic cavity?
the bones of the pelvis
what makes up the floor of the pelvic cavity?
a layer of muscle
What 3 things does the pelvic cavity contain?
the distal portion of the large intestine, the urinary bladder and various reproductive organs
What does the peritoneal cavity cover in females?
the ovaries and the uterus as well as the superior portion of the urinary bladder
Define Anatomy.
the study of internal and external structures of the body and the physical relationship among body parts
Define Physiology.
the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions
Define Gross (Macroscopic) Anatomy.
involved the examination of relatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaided eye
Define organ systems.
groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner.