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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
List three functions of the nervous system
1) senses changes inside and outside the body
2) interprets changes
3) responds to interpretations by initiating action. (muscle contraction, etc)
CNS
includes the brain and spinal cord
PNS
includes nerves that connect receptors with the CNS
Afferent
information is received and transmitted by Sensory Nerves
Efferent
information is responded by motor nerves
Motor-> Somatic or Autonomic
voluntary vs. involuntary
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic or parasympathetic
neurons
cells responsible for conducting impulses from one part of the body to another
neurons
functional unit of the nervous system
neurons
where nerve impulses are transmitted and receieved
internuerons
between sensory and motor
dendrites
multi, receive info
axon
single long, respond
neuroglia
cells responsible for supporting the neuron, aka nerve glue.
astrocytes , oligodendricytes, microglia are found in ______ of ______
CNS of Neuroglia
_________ is found in the PNS of neuroglia
Schwann Cell
schwann cells
cells which wrap aorund the axon in the PNS.
Schwann Cells
form myelin, yellowish, fatty covering,
What is the function of the myelin sheath?
acts as an insulator and protects the axon. also prevents current flow through the membrane
What are the nodes of Ranvier?
spaces between Schwann cells, uninsulated
name 3 structures of neurons
bipolar, multipolar, unipolar
multipolar
contain an axon and many dendrites
bipolar
contain an axon and a dentrite
unipolar
contain an axon
afferent neurons
bring information to the CNS
efferent nuerons
send out response from CNS
nerves lie ____ the CNS and belong to the ______
outside and PNS
Somatic Afferent Fibers
from body to CNS
Somatic Efferent Fibers
from CNS to body
Visceral Afferent Fibers
from organs to CNS
Visceral Efferent Fibers
from CNS to organs
Nerve cells lose their centrioles and spindle fibers during time of _______
birth
action potential
occurs when a cell becomes depolarized and a nerve impulse can result
excitability
the ability of nerve cells to respond to stimuli and convert them to nerve impulses
refractory period
the time it takes for nerve fibers to recover from the passage of a stimulus
absolute refractory period
does not change
relative refractory period
not fully, but can stimulate
all or none principle
if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential it will be conducted along the entire nerve at a constant and maximum strength
threshold stimulus
contract to their fullest extent or not at all
summation
if 2 or more subthreshold (weaker ones)follow each other, they can join together and reach threshold resulting in an impulse
Continous conduction
nerve impulse that depolarizes from the site of stimulus to the end of axon
Saltatory conduction
nerve impulse that "jumps" from one Node of Ranvier to another
A Fibers
largest in size, myelinated, found where a quick response is needed
B Fibers
middle sized, myelinated, found in the skin and viscera
C Fibers
smallest, nonmylinated, found in nerve that are part of PAIN tranmission
Synapse
impulse from one neuron to another or to an effector(muscle or gland)
synapse
the area where the neuron connects with another cell