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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what parts of the thyroid do i need to know?
follicle and parafollicular cell (area)
what parts of the pancreas do i need to know?
islets of Langerhans
what parts of the pituitary do i need to know?
adenohypophysis (anterior), neurohypophysis (posterior), infundibulum
what parts of the ovary do i need to know?
ovarian (Graffian) follicle with ovum, corpus luteum
what parts of the testes do we need to know?
seminiferous tubules, interstitial cells
what parts of the adrenal do we need to know?
capsule, cortex and medulla
(zona glomerulosa, zona fasiculata, zona reticularis)
what part of the adrenals are divided into zonas?
the cortex
name the zonas of the adrenals?
zona glomerulosa, fasciculata, reticularlis
how many glands (complete with their hormones and functions) do I need to know?
10 (counting pituitary front and back as one)
how many hormones does the adenohypophysis emit?
7; but i only have to know the function of 6
name the hormones the adenohypophysis emits
Growth Hormone (GH)

Prolactin (PRL)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); also known as thyrotropic hormone

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Name the two hormones the neurohypophysis produces
oxytocin (OT)

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
how many and what are the names of the hormones emitted by the thyroid gland?
2: thyroid hormone (TH) also known as thyroxin

calcitonin
how many and what are the names of the hormones emitted by the parathyroid gland?
1; the parathyroid hormone (PTH)
how many and what are the names of the hormones emitted by the adrenal medulla?
2;
norepinephrine
epinephrine
how many and what are the names of the hormones emitted by the pancreas?
2;
insulin
glucagon
how many and what are the names of the hormones emitted by the ovary?
2;
estrogen
progesterone
how many and what are the names of the hormones emitted by the testes?
1;
testosterone
how many and what are the names of the hormones emitted by the thymus?
1;
thymosin
how many and what are the names of the hormones emitted by the pineal gland?
1;
melatonin
name the 10 glands i need to know
pituitary
adenohypophysis - anterior
neurohypophysis - posterior

thyroid
parathyroid
adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex
pancreas
ovary
testes
thymus
pineal gland
what are the effects of Growth Hormone?
GH affects
liver
muscle
bone
cartilage
other tissue

stimulates growth

mobilizes fats

spares glucose
what are the functions of TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone?
thyroid gland

stimulates thyroid gland to release thyroid hormone
what are the functions of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)?
adrenal cortex

promotes release of glucocorticoids and androgens hormone
what are the functions of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)?
ovaries and testes

in females, stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estrogen production

in males, stimulates sperm production
what are the functions of luteinizing hormone (LH)?
ovaries and testes;

in females, triggers ovulation and stimulates ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone

in males, promotes testosterone production
what are the functions of prolactin (PRL)?
breast secretory tissue

promotes lactation
what are the functions of oxytocin?
uterus:
stimulates uterine contractions; initiates labor

breast: initiates milk ejection
what are the functions of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
kidneys:
stimulates kidney tubule cells to reabsorb water
what are the functions of thyroxin?
all cells;
increases glucose metabolism
what are the functions of calcitonin?
bones;
decreases blood calcium levels
what are the functions of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
bone:
increases blood calcium levels
what are the functions of aldosterone?
kidneys;
increased blood levels of sodium and
decreased blood levels of potassium

since water reabsorption accompanies sodium retention, blood volume and blood pressure RISE
what are the functions of cortisol?
body cells:
promote gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia

mobilize fats for energy metabolism

stimulate protein catabolism

assist body to resist stressors;

depress inflammatory and immune responses
what are the functions of androgens?
insignificant effects in adults;

the adrenally produced hormones may be responsible for female libido and source of estrogen after menopause
what are the functions of epinephrine?
sympathetic nervous system target organs;

effects mimic sympathetic nervous system activation

increase heart rate and metabolic rate

increase blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction
what are the functions of insulin?
all cells

decrease blood glucose levels

influences protein and fat metabolism
what are the functions of glucagon?
liver

breakdown of glycogen to glucose

synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and from noncarbohydrate molecules

release of glucose to the blood by liver cells, which causes blood sugar levels to rise
what are the functions of estrogens?
sexual organs

responsible for maturation of the reproductive organs and the appearance of the secondary sex characteristics of females at puberty

with progesterone, promote breast development and cyclic changes in the uterine mucosa
what are the functions of progesterone?
sexual organs;

breast development and cyclic changes in the uterine mucosa
what are the functions of testosterone
sexual organs;

initiates the maturation of the male reproductive organs and the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and sex drive

necessary for normal sperm production and maintains the reproductive organs in their mature functional state in adult males
what are the functions of melatonin
melatonin concentrations in the blood rise and fall in the diurnal cycle

peak levels occur during the night and make us drowsy

lowest levels occur around noon
what are the functions of thymosin?
immune system;

activates immune system
what are the functions of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)?
influence the course of pregnancy

stimulates estrogen production
how many and what are the names of the hormones emitted by the adrenal cortex?
3;
mineralcorticoids
as in aldosterone (zona glomerulosa)

glucocorticoids
as in cortisol (zona fasciculata)

gonadocorticoids
as in androgens (zona reticularis)