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61 Cards in this Set

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Covers palms, soles, fingers, and toes with layer of dead cells and lack of hair follicles
Thick Skin
Kearatinized stratified squamous epithelium organized into several strata
The Epidermis
Made up of stratum basale, stratum spinosum, strarum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum
The Epidermis
consists of single layer of cubodial or columnar cells that continuously undergo mitotic cell division to produce new skin cells
Stratum Basale
Most abundant epidermal cells
filled with tough, fibrous keratin that protects skin from heat, microbes and chemicals, and helps to waterproof skin
Keratinocytes
synthesize melanin
Melanocytes
Responsible for skin color and also absorbs ultraviolet radiation to protect skin from damaging sunlight
Melanin
Touch receptors that join sensory neurons to form discs
Merkel cells
Consists of several layers of keratinocytes and have a spiny appearance
Stratum Spinosom
Consists of keratinocytes that contain dark-staining granules of protein that becomes keratin and also release waterproofing gycolipids
Stratum Granulosum
A thin translucent layer of dead cells found ONLY in thick skin
Stratum Lucidum
Consists of up to 30 layers of deadl, scaly kearatinized cells which then exfoliates as dander
Stratum Corneum
Connective tissue composed mainly of collagen fibers, but ealstic fibers,reticular fibers, fibroblasts, and macrophages are also present
The Dermis
Boundry between epidermis and dermis
Dermal Papillae
Formas epidermal ridges at surface of palms, fingers, soles, toes to increase grip friction
Dermal Papillae
Skin color is determined by interactions between
melanin, carotene, hemoglobin
Produces variations in skin color form pale yellow to black
Melanin
All races have the same number of melanocytes
True
Patches of skin where melanin accumulates
Freckles and Moles
Difference in skin color is due to
differences in amount of melanin that is produced
Yellow-orange pigment that can accumulate in stratum corneum or sub-cutaneous fat to give skin a yellowish tint
Carotene
Abnormal redness due to dilation of dermal blood vessels during strenuous exercise or heat or anger or embarrassment
Erythema
Blueness of skin due to insufficient oxygen in the blood because of airway obstructions or lung disease or cold weather
Cyanosis
Yellowing of skin and whites of eyes due to elevated levels of bilirubin in blood because liver is unable dispose of bilirubin
Jaundice
Pale skin due to reduced dermal blood flow because of low blood pressure or shock or anemia or emotional stress
Pallor
A genetic defect that prevents individual from synthesizing melanin causing pale skin, white hair and pink eyes
Albinism
Bruses or visible blood clot resulting from trauma to skin
Hematoma
Covers all skin surfaces ecept palms, soles, eyelids, lips and nipples
Hair
Three layers of hair
inner medulla contains pigment granules and air spaces
cortex consists of densely packed keratinized cells
cuticle is single layer of overlaping scaly cells
Hair texture is due to cross-sectional shape of hairs
True
Muscle consisting of smooth muscle cells is associated with each hair
Arrector pili muscle
Plates of hard keratinized cells that form protective coverings over dorsal surface of terminal portion of fingers and toes to help grasp and manipulate small objects
Nails
Usually connected to hair follicles, although some open directly to skin surface
Sebaceous glands
Secrete oily sebum to keep hair from drying out and turning brittle to keep skin soft and moist and to inhibit growth of bacteria
Sebaceous glands
Modified sweat glands in outer ear canal that produce waxy cerumen to provide sticky barrier against entrance of foreign bodies
Ceruminous glands
produce mixture of water, salts and organic compounds
Sudoriferous glands
located in armpits, pubic area, breasts, and beard area of mature males where their ducts lead to nearby hair follicles rather than skin surface
Apocrine sweat glands
Produce viscous perspiration with organic substances that can be source of body odor
Apocrine sweat gland
Don't develop until puberty and respond to emotional stress or sexual arousal
Apocrine sweat gland
prevents dehydration and absorption of excess water
Keratin
provides some prtection against damage from ultraviolet radiation
Melanin
Provides protective physical barrier against abrasion
Skin
Makes it difficult for epidermal bacteria to multiply
anti-bacterial substances in sebum/sweat
Skin's ability to absorb certain drugs and/or chemicals across epidermis
Transdermal absorption
can be absorbed to relieve heart pain
nitroglycerine
can be absorbed to reduce motion sickness
Scopolamine
Can be used to quit smoking
Nicotine patches
Can be absorbed for purposes of birth control
Hormones
Can be hazardous if absorbed
toxins from poison ivy, organic solvents and metal salts
helps convert cholesterol into vitimin D
Ultraviolet light
hypothalamus signals dermal blood vessels to constrict to reduce blood flow and conserve heat
Extreme cold triggers
signals sweat glands to increase perspiration and cool body as sweat evaporates
Excessive heat triggers
dermal blood vessels dialte and blood flow increases so more heat can be released
Excessive heat triggers
replaces dead or damaged cells with same cell type restoring normal functioni
Regeneration
replaces damaged tissue with scar tissue of collagen fibers so normal function is altered
Fibrosis
During an inflammatory phase, mast cells escape from damaged blood vessels and release _______ to increase blood flow to wound
Histamine
Blood clot forms and scabs over to temporarily seal wound
Migratory phase
Macrophages enter wound and phagocytize cellular debris
Migratory phase
New capillaries develop and fibroblasts deposit collagen into blood clot
Proliferative Phase
tissue that fills wound
Granulation tissue
Surface epithelial cells multiply and loosen scab until it falls off
Maturation phase