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84 Cards in this Set

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Consists of a group of glands that produces regulatory chemicals called hormones
Endocrine system
These two systems work together to control and coordinate all the systems of the body
Endocrine system
Nervous system
Chemical messengers that have specific regulatory effects on certain cells or organs
Hormones
Hormones that affect many tissues
Growth hormone
Thyroid hormone
Insulin
Hormones that affect only specific tissues
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Hormone that acts only on the thyroid gland
TSH
Hormone that stimulates only the outer portion of the adrenal gland
ACTH
The specific tissue acted on by each hormone
target tissue
These hormones are proteins or related compounds also made of amino acids
Amino acid compounds
Hormones fall into these two categories
Amino acid compounds
Steroids
All hormones except those of the adrenal cortex and the sex glands fall into this category
Amino acid compound
these hormones are types of lipids derived from the steroid cholesterol
Steroids
Can be recognized by the ending -one, as in progesterone, testosterone
Steroids
Hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and the sex glands
Steroids
The method most commonly used to regulate hormone levels
Negative feedback
Hormone cycle of the adrenal cortex follow this pattern
24 hours
highest before getting up in morning
lowest right before bed
tissues other than the endocrine glands that produce hormones
Brain
Digestive organs
Kidneys
A small gland avout the size of a cherry; divided into two parts the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe
Pituitary
hypophysis
Commonly used when refering to the pituitary gland because it releases hormones that affect the working of other glands
Master gland
Hormones produced in the anterior pituitary are not released until these chemical messengers arrive from the hypothalamus
Releasing hormones
Hormone that causes contraction of uterine muscle; causes ejection of milk from mamary glands
Oxytocin
Hormone that stimulates liver to release glucose, thereby increasing blood sugar levels
Glucagon
Two hormones of the posterior pituitary
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Oyxitocin
Hormone that acts directly on most body tissues, promoting protein manufacture that is essential for growth
Growth Hormone (GH)
Hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce throid hormones
Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Hormone that stimulates the production of hormones in the cortex of the adrenal glands
Adrenocorticotopic Hormone (ACTH)
Hormone that stimulates the production of milk in the breasts
Prolactin (PRL)
Hormone that stimulates the development of eggs in the ovaries and sperm cells in the testes
Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Hormone that causes ovulation in females and sex hormone secretion in both males and females
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Hormones that act on the gonads to regulate growth, development, and function of the reproductive systems in both males and females
Gonadotropins
Hormone that promotes the reabsorbtion of water from te kidney tubules and thus decrease water excretion
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
the largest of the endocrine glands; has two roughly oval lobes on either side of the larynx connected by a narrow band called an isthmus
Thyroid
The principle hormone produced by the thyroid; contains 4 iodine atom in each molecule; increase energy metabolism and protein metabolism
Thyroxine (T4)
Other hormone produced by the thyroid; contains 3 iodine atoms in each molecule; increases energy metabolism and protein metabolism
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Another hormone produced by the thyroid, active in calcium metabolism
Calcitonin
The uniform overgrowth of the thyroid gland
Simple goiter
An irregular-appearing goiter accompanied by tumor formation
Adenomatous or nodular goiter
Underactivity of the thyroid
hypothyroidism
A condition resulting from hypothyroidism in infants and children
Infantile hypothyroidism or cretinism
Disorder that results from thyroid atrophy in an adult
Myxedema
overactivity of the thyroid gland with excessive secretion of hormone
Hyperthyroidism
Common form of hyperthyroidism characterized by a goiter, a strained appearance of the face, intensive nervousness, weight loss, a rapid pulse, sweating, tremors, and an abnormally quick metabolism
Graves Disease
Protrusion of the eyes caused by swelling of the tissue behind the eyes
exophthalmos
An exaggerated form of hyperthyroidism with a sudden onset
Thyroid storm
Hormone that promotes calcium release from bone tissue, thus increasing the amount of calcium circulating in the bloodstream
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
The active form of vitamin D used along with PTH and calcitonin to regulate calcium balance
Calcitriol
Series of muscle contractions involving the face and hands due to a low concentration of blood calcium
Tetany
Two small glands located atop the kidneys
Adrenal glands
Inner area of the adrenal gland
Medulla
Outer portion of the adrenal gland
Cortex
Effects of fight-or-flight hormones
Stimulation of the involuntary muscle in the walls of the arterioles
Conversion of glycogen stored in the liver into glucose
Increase in the heart rate
Increase in the metabolic rate of body cells
Dilation of the bronchioles
Maintain the carbohydrate reserve if the body by stimulating the liver to convert amino acids into glucose instead of protein
Glucocorticoids
Hormones produced by the adrenal cortex
Glucocorticoids
Mineralocorticoids
Sex Hormones
Major hormone in the glucocorticoid group
Cortisol
Important in the regulation of electrolyte balance
Mineralocorticoid
Major hormone in the mineralocorticoid group
Aldosterone
Disease characterized chiefly by muscle atrophy, weakness, skin pigmentation, and disturbances in salt and water balance
Addison disease
Hypersecretion of cortisol; symptoms include obesity, with a round face, thin skin that bruses easily, muscle weakness, bone loss, and elevated blood sugar
Cushing syndrome
Cells that make up the endocrine portion of the pancreas
Islets
The most important hormone secreted by the islets; lowers blood sugar levels
Insulin
Active in the transport of glucose across plasma membranes, increasing cellular glucose uptake
Insulin
Hormone produced by islets that works with insulin to regulate blood sugar levels; increases blood sugar levels
Glucagon
Mass of lymphoid tissue that lies in the upper part of the chest superior to the heart; important in the development of immunity
Thymus gland
Hormone secreted by the thymus gland; assists in the maturation of certain white blood cells (T cells)
Thymosin
A small, flattened, coneshaped structure located posterior to the midbrain and connected to the roof of the third ventricle
Pineal gland
Hormone produced by the pineal gland; influences the regulation of sleep-wake cycles
Melatonin
A group of local hormones made by most body tissues
Prostagalndins
Hormone used for the treatment of children with a deficiency of this hormone
Growth hormone
Hormone used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus
Insulin
Hormones used for the relief of inflammation in such diseases as rheumatoid arthritis
Adrenal steroids
Hormone used for stimulation of the heart muscle when rapid response is required
Epinephrine
Hormones used in the treatment of hypothyroid conditions
Thyroid hormones
Hormone used in severe chronic illness to aid tissue building and promote healing
Androgens
Hormones uses as oral contraceptives and as treatment for menopause
Estrogen
Progestrogen
Pineal
1
Pituitary
2
Hypothalamus
3
Thyroid
4
Parathyroid
5
Thymus
6
Adrenal glands
7
Pancreas
8
Ovaries
9
Testes
10