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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_____= system made up of a group of ductless glands that secrete hormones
endocrine system
_____= chemical substances that are produced by DUCTLESS GLANDS, RELEASED into blood, CARRIED to other parts of the body, where they PRODUCE A SPECIFIC AFFECT
____= hormone is transported via the blood TO target organ

_____= hormone is secreted to the EXTERIOR of the body where it interacts with a target organ ( ex: hormones secreted into the lumen of the digestive tract)
endocrine route

exocrine route
____= hormone secreted into the space BETWEEN the cells and interstitial fluid carries them to the target organ ( hormones often effect neighboring cells)

_____= Hormone PRODUCED BY THE CELL regulates the activity of the cell that produced it

____= hormones diffuse through synaptic clefts similar to NEUROtransmitters

____= hormone passes through GAP JUNCTIONS ( between) cells and alters the functions of adjacent cells

Hormones are different according to chemical structure...
____= proteins

____= modifications of tyrosine

____= cholesterol

amines/ tyrosine

steroids/ cholesterol
Peptide hormones and amines are stored in secretory granules by ______ cells.

Steroid hormones must be synthesized!!! (not stored)
How are peptides, steroids, amines different structurally?
peptides- are proteins

steroids- synthesis begins with cholesterol as substrate ( cholesterol has carbon atoms arranged in adjoining 4 rings, and ring structure is common to all steroid hormones)

amines- biochemical modifications of a single amino acid, tyrosine
___= that tissue which is able to respond to a hormone, and contains receptors specific to that hormone

____= complex of protein structures designed to bind a hormone to elicit its cellular effects ( found in cell membrane/nucleus)

-- receptor for a specific hormone must be present for a cell to respond to the hormone
target organ

What are the hormones not secreted by endocrine glands? and where found?
gastrin- wall of stomach, stimulates release of gastrice juices from gastric glands

secretin- wall of small intestine, stimulates secretion of intestinal/pancreatic juices

erythropoietin- kidney, stimulates boone marrow
___= hormones with receptors found in the cell membrane, response is rapid and quickly can be reversed, contains secondary messengers( cell components that bring abt a desired effect of hormone AFTER binding of hormone to receptor)
peptide hormones
_____= hormone with receptors found in the cytoplasm/nucleus, biological responses are slow, but last longer than peptide hormones, hormone binding triggers transcription of DNA which leads to mRNA for specific proteins to be produces
increase in protein production brings abt desred effect of hormone
steroid hormones
What are the major endocrine glands?
- their only function is to produce hormones....
pituitary gland

thryoid gland

parathryroid gland

adrenal gland
____= gland containing CRH,GnRH, GHRH, TRH
- synthesizes oxytocin, and antidiuretic hormone, but is stored/released by the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
- stimulates release of various hormones from anterior pituitary
____= gland that contains hormones that generally affect the function of many organs in a variety of systems
has 2 tissues/lobes
anterior- adenohypophysis
posterior- neurohypophysis
pituitary gland
____= gland that contains the hormones ACTH, FSH, LH, GH, TSH, PRL
-ACTH- stimulates release of hormones from adrenal glands
-LH/FSH- regulate male/female repro processes
-GH- growth hormone- most tissues respond
anterior pituitary
____= gland with hormones oxytocin, and ADH ( antidiuretic hormone)
- _____= pos feedback regulation- helps propel fetus, affects mammary glands ( milk let down)

____- involved with kidney function ( water retention)
posterior pituitary


____= glad that secretes Thryroid hormones T3 and T4, tyrosine based, contains iodine, and calcitonin

____= triidothyronine

____= thyroxine

____= ( increases BMR, and most tissues have receptors)

____= peptide hormone that helps control calcium
thyroid gland




discuss how calcitonin and PTH regulate plasma calcium levels?

_____= this hormone comes into affect when plasma calcium levels are high, lower the osteoclast activity- it decreases the calcium in the blood bc the osteoclasts are slowed down

_____= hormone raises the activity of osteoclasts, so it raises the level of calcium in the blood

____= deficit in thyroid hormone; animals do not attain normal stature and have CNS abnormalities
In colder temp regions, animals have _____ levels of thyroid hormones in an effort to raise metabolic rate and heat the body

increased thryoid activity leads to increaded body heat (way of thermal regulation)
____= instance when glands of the thryoid swell to produce more hormones; neck swells
____= gland that secretes PTH to raise activity of osteoclasts, so increases in blood calcium
-lowers phosphorus in blood
- stimulates release of Ca and P from bone (increases osteoclasts.osteocytes)
-promotes formation of vit D in kidney

*** diets low in Ca will stimulate PTH release
____= decalcification of bone
___= increased Ca is released from the bone
-leads to deformities and osteoporosis
-rickets in young animals
____= contains the hormone glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoids

___- hormone of adrenal cortex that enhances the production or conversion of glucose

____= regulated Na and K levels in the blood
adrenal cortex


____= gland containing the catecholamines( epiniephrine and norepinephrine)- have a variety of functions in different organs, but mostly prepares animals in fight/flight response
adrenal medulla
___= gland that contains insulin (b cells) and glucagon (a cells), and somatostatin
effects of pancreatic hormones on the blood glucose levels....
insulin= decreases the blood glucose levels

glucagon- increases the blood glucose

somatostatin- slows mobilization and production of nutrients- helps nutrients get to the right places
Full explanation of what happens when an animal eats?
glucose levels rise when animal eats carbs/sugar etc
glucose is absorbed into the digestive tract into capillary beds
islets release insulin and blood glucose levels decrease (takes 4-5 hrs)- insulin increases glucose hormone receptors for glucose so that glucose can be absorbed by the cell
glucose is absorbed by the cell until it is full
glucose binds, and forms glycogen- muscles/liver
glycogenesis occurs- how glucose levels are lowered and it become glycogen
glycogenolysis- breakage of glycogen so glucose molecules become available again and ready to be used
___= gland with the key hormone of melatonin ( regulates sleep/wake cycle)
pineal gland
What are the 2 feedback mechanisms that regulate hormone levels. discus..
neg feedback regulation

pos feedback regulation
____= regulation; rising levels of hormone causes a biologic response to INHIBIT further release (ex: estrogen stops FSH,and progesterone stops LH)

_____= regulation type seen less frequently; hormones cause a response that produces an increase in the releasing of a hormone (oxytocin affects mammary glands)
neg feedback regulation

pos feedback regulation